A comparative analysis of dominant dietary patterns in patients with and without oral squamous cell carcinoma


1 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Dental Implants Research Center, School of Dentistry, Dental Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

2 Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

3 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Students Research Committee, School of Dentistry, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

4 Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

5 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Dental Research Center, School of Dentistry, Dental Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran


Background: As a modifiable risk factor, nutrition plays a pivotal role in the prevention or delay of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). This study was aimed to investigate and compare the dominant dietary patterns in the patients with and without OSCC.
Materials and Methods: This case-control study evaluated the usual dietary intake of 80 cases and 120 controls during 2019–2020 using the 117-item Food Frequency Questionnaire, with confirmed validity and reliability. Factor analysis was used to detect the dominant dietary patterns. Data analysis was done by SPSS (version 21) using the Chi-square test, ANOVA, logistic regression analysis, and independent t-test (P < 0.05).
Results: Three dietary patterns were identified, including the western dietary pattern, health dietary pattern, and traditional dietary pattern. The odds ratio (OR) = 1.181 and confidence interval (CI) = 0.671 and 2.082 were found for the western dietary pattern, OR = 1.087 and CI = 0.617 and 1.914 were detected for the healthy dietary pattern, and OR = 0.846 and CI = 0.480 and 1.491 were reported for the traditional dietary pattern. No significant difference was found between the study groups in the dietary pattern and the risk of disease. This relationship remained insignificant after adjustment for the energy intake and confounding factors.
Conclusion: There was no significant relationship between adherence to healthy, traditional, and western dietary patterns and OSCC. Consumption of vegetables and nuts had a protective role against the disease, but risky behaviors such as smoking and alcohol use were directly associated with the incidence of the disease.


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