A process evaluation of the Isfahan antibiotic awareness campaign: Developing engagement on antimicrobial resistance


1 Nosocomial Infection Research Centre, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

2 Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Research Centre, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

3 Isfahan Gastroenterology and Hepatology Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran


Background: One of the most prominent global health threats is antibiotic resistance, leading to infection treatment failure. The first Iranian antibiotic awareness week campaign was initiated to improve the prudent use and wise prescription of antibiotics.
Materials and Methods: The Isfahan antibiotic awareness campaign was held from November 30 to December 6, 2019, among two targeted populations; the general population and health-care workers by Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. In this campaign held in the main squares, streets, and a city's referral hospital, various educational methods were used to aware and sensitize the general population and medical staff about antibiotics and microbial resistance. These methods include face-to-face training, brochures, advertisement posters and billboards around the city, educational videos, social media messages, retraining for medical doctors and medical specialists, and interviewing in the Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcast.
Results: Two hundred and twenty general practitioners, medical specialists, and residents participated in two retraining educational conferences in Al-Zahra Hospital, Isfahan, Iran. The mean score satisfaction of the two conferences was three from four. Nearly 2000 of the general population were under face-to-face educational programs whom after that, 83.6% had the correct answer to the questions around antimicrobial awareness.
Conclusions: This campaign was an excellent experience as a pilot study with appealing issues. Further, activities are required to improve engagement with the target population and determine the impact of this campaign on antibiotic consumption and prescription behavior among the public and health-care professionals.


Tao W, Ivanovska V, Schweickert B, Muller A. Proxy indicators for antibiotic consumption; surveillance needed to control antimicrobial resistance. Bull World Health Organ 2019;97:3-3A.  Back to cited text no. 1
Tartari E, Abbas M, Pires D, de Kraker ME, Pittet D. World Health Organization SAVE LIVES: Clean your hands global campaign – 'Fight antibiotic resistance – It's in your hands'. Clin Microbiol Infect 2017;23:596-8.8.  Back to cited text no. 2
Alcock BP, Raphenya AR, Lau TT, Tsang KK, Bouchard M, Edalatmand A, et al. CARD 2020: Antibiotic resistome surveillance with the comprehensive antibiotic resistance database. Nucleic Acids Res 2020;48:D517-25.  Back to cited text no. 3
Soltani J, Versporten A, Goossens H. Antibiotic resistance, A global concern; Current Situation and Action Plans. Erciyes Med J 2019;41:125-7.  Back to cited text no. 4
Tiedje JM. Environmental aspects of antibiotic resistance. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 2019;95:fiz019.  Back to cited text no. 5
Newitt S, Anthierens S, Coenen S, Lo Fo Wong D, Salvi C, Puleston R, et al. Expansion of the 'Antibiotic Guardian' one health behavioural campaign across Europe to tackle antibiotic resistance: Pilot phase and analysis of AMR knowledge. Eur J Public Health 2018;28:437-9.  Back to cited text no. 6
Chaintarli K, Ingle SM, Bhattacharya A, Ashiru-Oredope D, Oliver I, Gobin M. Impact of a United Kingdom-wide campaign to tackle antimicrobial resistance on self-reported knowledge and behaviour change. BMC Public Health 2016;16:393.  Back to cited text no. 7
Michie S, van Stralen MM, West R. The behaviour change wheel: A new method for characterising and designing behaviour change interventions. Implement Sci 2011;6:42.  Back to cited text no. 8
Abbasian H, Hajimolaali M, Yektadoost A, Zartab S. Antibiotic utilization in Iran 2000-2016: Pattern analysis and benchmarking with organization for economic co-operation and development countries. J Res Pharm Pract 2019;8:162-7.  Back to cited text no. 9
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
Khoshgoftar M, Zamani-Alavijeh F, Kasaian N, Shahzamani K, Rostami S, Nakhodian Z, et al. The effect of public health educational campaign regarding antibiotic use and microbial resistance on knowledge, attitude, and practice in the Iran. J Educ Health Promot 2021;10:3.  Back to cited text no. 10
Al Omari S, Al Mir H, Wrayde S, Merhabi S, Dhaybi I, Jamal S, et al. First Lebanese antibiotic awareness week campaign: Knowledge, attitudes and practices towards antibiotics. J Hosp Infect 2019;101:475-9.  Back to cited text no. 11
Firouzabadi D, Mahmoudi L. Knowledge, attitude, and practice of health care workers towards antibiotic resistance and antimicrobial stewardship programmes: A cross-sectional study. J Eval Clin Pract 2020;26:190-6.  Back to cited text no. 12