Evaluation of the negative effects of opium tincture on memory and hippocampal neurons in the presence of chicory extract


1 Department of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran

2 Department of Clinical Psychology, Islamic Azad University, Yazd Branch, Yazd; Farsan Health Service System, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran

3 Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran

4 Tissue Engineering Department, Faculty of Medicine, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran


Background: Due to the high prevalence of addiction in society and the need to its attention, various methods are used for addiction withdrawal. The side effects of some methods restrict their use and increase the risk of recurrence. One of the Iranian useful methods is consumption of opium tincture (OT) that may cause brain structure and memory defects. Hence, this study aimed the effects of different doses of OT on memory and hippocampal neurons with the use of an antioxidant such as various concentrations chicory.
Materials and Methods: In the present study, 70 Wistar rats were randomly divided into 10 groups and the effect of various doses of chicory extract and OT were assessed on memory by the passive avoidance test. The neurons and astrocyte cells numbers in dentate gyrus were investigated, using histological examination.
Results: In passive avoidance test, the total time in dark compartment was significantly more in groups with 100 and 75 μl OT compared with control and normal saline groups (P < 0.001). Traffic number results showed that there was a significant difference between T100 and control groups (P > 0.05). Moreover, initial latency time was significantly shorter in groups with 75 and 100 μl of OT compared with control and normal saline groups (P < 0.05). However, the presence 250 mg/kg of chicory increases granular layer thickness of dentate gyrus and number of neurons.
Conclusion: The use of 250 mg/kg of chicory extract may be promising strategy for inducing neurogenesis and this dose could prevent neural damage.


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