The effect of conjugated linoleic acids and omega-3 fatty acids supplementation on lipid profile in atherosclerosis


1 Nutrition Department, School of Health and Nutrition, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

2 Heart Department, School of Medical Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

3 Epidemiology Department, School of Health and Nutrition, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran


Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the most serious cause of mortality in developed and developing countries. Epidemiological studies indicated that dyslipidemia is the major risk factor of CVD. Dyslipidemia can be modified either by proper lifestyle or medical intervention or by the combination of both. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) and ω3 fatty acids have beneficial effects on plasma lipids and lipoproteins. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of CLA and omega-3 fatty acids (ω-3 fatty acids) supplementation on lipid profile in atherosclerosis patient.
Materials and Methods: This study was a 2-month clinical randomized trial. Ninety atherosclerotic patients with angiographically diagnosed coronary atherosclerosis who were referred to Emam Reza Heart Clinic of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences from February to march 2011 were selected if they fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The participants were randomly classified into 3 groups receiving 3 g/d CLA or 1 920 mg/d ω3 or placebo for 2 months. High-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), and total cholesterol were measured before and after the intervention. This study was a two-month clinical randomized trial.
Results: Data were analyzed using SPSS software (SPSS Inc, Chicago, version19). Although CLA did not appear to have a significant effect on TG, ω3 supplementation significantly reduced TG level. Consumption of CLA and ω3 supplementation did not significantly affect HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and total cholesterol.
Conclusions: ω3 supplementation significantly reduced TG level but CLA and ω3 did not show significant changes in other indices of lipid profile in atherosclerotic patients.


1. Nissinen A, Berrios X, Puska P. Community-based noncommunicable disease interventions: Lessons from developed countries for developing ones. Bull World Health Organ 2001;79:963-70.  Back to cited text no. 1
2. Hatmi ZN, Tahvildari S, Gafarzadeh Motlag A, Sabouri Kashani A. Prevalence of coronary artery disease risk factors in Iran: A population based survey. BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2007;7:32.  Back to cited text no. 2
3. Jawalekar S, Kulkarni U, Surve V, Deshmukh Y. Status of lipid profile, MDA and protein carbonyl in patients with cardiovascular diseases. Arch Appl Sci Res 2010;2:8-14.  Back to cited text no. 3
4. Sneddon AA, Tsofliou F, Fyfe CL, Matheson I, Jackson DM, Horgan G, et al. Effect of a conjugated linoleic acid and ù-3 fatty acid mixture on body composition and adiponectin. Obesity 2008;16:1019-24.  Back to cited text no. 4
5. McLeod RS, LeBlanc AM, Langille MA, Mitchell PL, Currie DL. Conjugated linoleic acids, atherosclerosis, and hepatic very-low-density lipoprotein metabolism. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;79(6 Suppl):1169-74.  Back to cited text no. 5
6. Holub BJ. Docosahexaenoicacid(DHA) and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2009;81:199-204.  Back to cited text no. 6
7. Whigham LD, Cook ME, Atkinson RL. Conjugated linoleic acid: Implications for human health. Pharmacol Res 2000;42:503-10.  Back to cited text no. 7
8. Kritchevskya D, Teppera SA, Wrighta S, Czarneckib SK, Wilson TA, Nicolosi RJ. Conjugated linoleic acid isomer effects in atherosclerosis: Growth and regression of lesions. Lipids 2004;39:611-6.  Back to cited text no. 8
9. Banni S, Angioni E, Contini MS, Carta G, Casu V, Lengo GA, et al. Conjugated linoleic acid and oxidative stress. J Am Oil Chem Soc 1998;75:261-7.  Back to cited text no. 9
10. Benjamin S, Spener F. Conjugated linoleic acids as functional food: An insight into their health benefits. Nutr Metab 2009;6:36.  Back to cited text no. 10
11. Nagao K, Yanagita T. Conjugated fatty acids in food and their healthbenefits. J Biosci Bioeng. 2005;100:152-7.  Back to cited text no. 11
12. Nakamura YK, Flintoff-Dye N, Omaye ST. Conjugated linoleic acid modulation of risk factors associated with atherosclerosis. Nutr Metab 2008;5:20-40.  Back to cited text no. 12
13. Manjula B, Shivalinge Gowda KP, Ahamed SM, Nagarjan T, Gaurav G. Role of omega fatty acid in human body. Asian J Res Chem 2009;2:93-9.  Back to cited text no. 13
14. Kris-Etherton PM, Harris WS, Appel LJ; Nutrition Committee. Fish consumption, fish oil, Omega-3 fatty acids, and cardiovascular disease. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2003;23:e31.  Back to cited text no. 14
15. Connor SL, Connor WE. Are fish oils beneficial in the prevention and treatment of coronary artery disease. Am J Clin Nutr I997;66(4 Suppl):1020-31S.  Back to cited text no. 15
16. Kromhout D, Yasuda S, Geleijnse JM, Shimokawa H. Fish oil and omega-3 fatty acids in cardiovascular disease: Do they really work?. Eur Heart J 2012;33:436-43.  Back to cited text no. 16
17. Harper CR, Jacobson TA. The role of omega-3 fatty acid in the prevention of coronary heart disease. Arch Intern Med 2001;161:2185-92.  Back to cited text no. 17
18. Omrani GH, Mazloom Z, Savid M, Rashidi AA. Effect of omega-3 fatty acids on glycemic control and lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes. J Diabetes Metab Disord 2003;2:34-9.  Back to cited text no. 18
19. Rainer L, Heiss CJ. Conjugated linoleic acid: Health implications and effects on body composition. J Am Diet Assoc 2004;104:963-8.  Back to cited text no. 19
20. Joseph SV, Jacques H, Plourde M, Mitchell PL, McLeod RS, Jones PJ. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation for 8 weeks does not affect body composition, lipid profile, or safety biomarkers in overweight, hyperlipidemic men. J Nutr 2011;141:1286-91.  Back to cited text no. 20
21. Baddini Feitoza A, Fernandes Pereira A, Ferreira da Costa N, Gonçalves Ribeiro B. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA): Effect modulation of body composition and lipid profile. Nutr Hosp 2009;24:422-8.  Back to cited text no. 21
22. Nestel P, Fujii A, Allen T. The cis-9,trans-11 isomer of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) lowers plasma triglyceride and raises HDL cholesterol concentrations but does not suppress aortic atherosclerosis in diabetic apoE-deficient mice. Athrosclerosis 2006;189:282-7.  Back to cited text no. 22
23. Noone EJ, Roche HM, Nugent AP, Gibney MJ. The effect of dietary supplementation using isomeric blend of conjugated linoleic acid on lipid metabolism in healthy human subjects. Br J Nutr 2002;88:243-51.  Back to cited text no. 23
24. Mougiosa V, Matsakasa A, Petridoua A, Ring S, Sagredosc A, Melissopoulou A, et al. Effect of supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid on human serum lipids and body fat. J Nutr Biochem 2001;12:585-94.  Back to cited text no. 24
25. Bhattacharyaa A, Banu J, Rahman M, Causey J, Fernandes G. Biological effects of conjugated linoleic acids in health and disease. J Nutr Biochem 2006;17:789-810.  Back to cited text no. 25
26. Smedman A, Vessby B. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation in humans-Metabolic Effects Lipids 2001,36:773-81.  Back to cited text no. 26
27. Reynolds C, Roche H. Conjugated linoleic acid and inflammatory cell signaling. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2010;82:199-204.  Back to cited text no. 27
28. Riserus U, Arner P, Brismar K, Vessby B. Treatment with dietary trans10cis12 conjugated linoleic acid causes isomer-specific insulin resistance in obese men with the metabolic syndrome. Diabetes Care 2002;25:1516-21.  Back to cited text no. 28
29. Harris WS, Connor WE, Inkeles SB, Illingworth DR. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids prevent carbohydrate-induced hypertriglyceridemia. Metabolism 1984;33:1016-9.  Back to cited text no. 29
30. Montrol VM, Farmer A, Wollan PC, Dinneen SF. Fish oil supplementation in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2000;23:1407-15.  Back to cited text no. 30
31. Jacobson TA. Role of n-3 fatty acids in the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia and cardiovascular disease. Am J Clin Nutr 2008;87:1981-90S.  Back to cited text no. 31
32. von Schacky C. n-3 Fatty acids and the prevention of coronary atherosclerosis. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71(1 Suppl):224-7.  Back to cited text no. 32