The chemokine receptor CXCR4 is associated with the staging of gastric cancer


1 Kurdistan Cellular & Molecular Research Center, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran

2 Kurdistan Liver & Digestive Research Center, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanadaj, Iran

3 Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kurdistan University of Medical Science, Sanandaj, Iran

4 Iran Tumor Bank, Immam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran


Background: CXCR4 is a cognitive receptor for stromal-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) and has been previously shown to be associated with tumor growth and invasion of many cancers. However, its expression and function in gastric cancer has not been well clarified.
Materials and Methods: Herein, we studied the expression of CXCR4 on gastric samples from patients with gastric adenocarcinoma in comparison with precancerous lesions by employing qRT-PCR.
Results: Our qRT-PCR data show that CXCR4 is highly expressed in tissue samples from patients with gastric cancer than precancerous lesions (2.4 times higher, P value < 0.05). When we correlated the level of CXCR4 with clinicopathological findings, we observed that CXCR4 level is associated with staging of the disease and lymphatic invasion.
In conclusion: We present evidence that CXCR4 level is significantly elevated in later stages of gastric cancer. Thus, CXCR4 may play a crucial role in gastric cancer progression.


1. Correia M, Machado JC, Ristimaki A. Basic aspects of gastric cancer. Helicobacter 2009;14(Suppl 1):36-40.   Back to cited text no. 1
2. Leja M, Wex T, Malfertheiner P. Markers for gastric cancer premalignant lesions: Where do we go? Dig Dis 2012;30:268-76.  Back to cited text no. 2
3. Chambers AF, Groom AC, MacDonald IC. Dissemination and growth of cancer cells in metastatic sites. Nat Rev Cancer 2002;2:563-72.  Back to cited text no. 3
4. Balkwill F. Cancer and the chemokine network. Nat Rev Cancer 2004;4:540-50.  Back to cited text no. 4
5. Kuai WX, Wang Q, Yang XZ, Zhao Y, Yu R, Tang XJ. Interleukin-8 associates with adhesion, migration, invasion and chemosensitivity of human gastric cancer cells. World J Gastroenterol 2012;18:979-85.  Back to cited text no. 5
6. Liekens S, Schols D, Hatse S. CXCL12-CXCR4 axis in angiogenesis, metastasis and stem cell mobilization. Curr Pharm Des 2010;16:3903-20.  Back to cited text no. 6
7. Sekiya R, Kajiyama H, Sakai K, Umezu T, Mizuno M, Shibata K, et al. Expression of CXCR4 indicates poor prognosis in patients with clear cell carcinoma of the ovary. Hum Pathol 2012;43:904-10.  Back to cited text no. 7
8. Zhao C, Lu X, Bu X, Zhang N, Wang W. Involvement of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the upregulation of CXCR4 expression in gastric cancer induced by Helicobacter pylori. BMC cancer 2010;10:419.   Back to cited text no. 8
9. Pituch-Noworolska A, Drabik G, Szatanek R, Bialas M, Kolodziejczyk P, Szczepanik A, et al. Immunophenotype of isolated tumour cells in the blood, bone marrow and lymph nodes of patients with gastric cancer. Pol J Pathol 2007;58:93-7.  Back to cited text no. 9
10. Yasumoto K, Koizumi K, Kawashima A, Saitoh Y, Arita Y, Shinohara K, et al. Role of the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis in peritoneal carcinomatosis of gastric cancer. Cancer Res 2006;66:2181-7.   Back to cited text no. 10
11. Kwak MK, Hur K, Park DJ, Lee HJ, Lee HS, Kim WH, et al. Expression of chemokine receptors in human gastric cancer. Tumour Biol 2005;26:65-70.  Back to cited text no. 11
12. Tsuboi K, Kodera Y, Nakanishi H, Ito S, Mochizuki Y, Nakayama G, et al. Expression of CXCL12 and CXCR4 in pT3-stage gastric cancer does not correlate with peritoneal metastasis. Oncol Rep 2008;20:1117-23.  Back to cited text no. 12
13. Schmittgen TD, Livak KJ. Analyzing real-time PCR data by the comparative C(T) method. Nat Protoc 2008;3:1101-8.  Back to cited text no. 13
14. Burger JA, Kipps TJ. CXCR4: A key receptor in the crosstalk between tumor cells and their microenvironment. Blood 2006;107:1761-7.  Back to cited text no. 14
15. Rugge M, Capelle LG, Cappellesso R, Nitti D, Kuipers EJ. Precancerous lesions in the stomach: from biology to clinical patient management. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2013;27:205-23.  Back to cited text no. 15
16. Kapadia CR. Gastric atrophy, metaplasia, and dysplasia: a clinical perspective. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2003;36(5 Suppl):S29-36.  Back to cited text no. 16