Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis of Anbarnesa smoke and its antiviral activity


1 Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

2 Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Medical Plants Research Center Basic Health Sciences Institute, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran


Background: Anbarnesa is the female donkey dung typically collected after the labor and in early springtime.
Materials and Methods: The chemical composition of the smoke collected from Anbarnesa was evaluated by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and its antiviral activity was analyzed based on 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay.
Results: As a result, twenty-two constituents representing 97.1% of the Anbarnesa smoke could be identified. Hexadecanoic acid (29.4%), cis-9-octadecenoic acid (17.7%), and octadecanoic acid (10.8%) were the smoke's main constituents, respectively. Antiviral activity was evaluated using MTT assay. The CC50 value of the compound on Hep2 and Verro cells was 2271.2 μg/mL and 5077.5 μg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, the 50% inhibitory concentration value on adenovirus and herpes simplex type-1 was 802.55 μg/mL and >5077.5, respectively.
Conclusions: it was revealed that Anbarnesa was nontoxic in 1/64, 1/128, and 1/256 dilutions, while the toxicity was detected in 1/32 dilution after 72 h. In addition, in 1/8 and 1/16 dilutions, cell toxicity was identified in the first hour.


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