Reasons for failure of immunization: A cross-sectional study among 12-23-month-old children of Lucknow, India


1 Department of Community Medicine, Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India

2 Department of Pharmacology, Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India

3 Department of Community Medicine, Era's Lucknow Medical College and Hospital, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India


Background: Roughly 3 million children die every year of vaccine preventable diseases and a significant number of these children live in developing countries. The present study was conducted to assess the reasons for failure of immunization among 12-23-month-old children of Lucknow city in India.
Materials and Methods: Out of all villages in rural areas and mohallas in urban areas of Lucknow district, eight villages and eight mohallas were selected by simple random sampling. A community based cross-sectional study was done among 450 children aged 12-23 months. The immunization status of the child was assessed by vaccination card and by mother's recall. A pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire was used to elicit information on reasons for failure of immunization. Data was analysed using statistical package for social services (SPSS) version 11.5. Chi square test was used to find out the significant association.
Results: Overall, 62.7% children were fully immunized, 24.4% children were partially immunized, and 12.9% children were not immunized. The major reasons for failure of immunization were postponing it until another time, child being ill and hence not brought to the centre for immunization, unaware of the need of immunization, place of immunization being too far, no faith in immunization, unaware of the need to return for 2 nd and 3 rd dose, mother being too busy, fear of side reactions, wrong ideas about immunization, and polio was considered only vaccine, and others.
Conclusion: More awareness should be generated among the people living in rural and urban areas to immunize their children.


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