Metabolic evaluation in patients with nephrolithiasis: A report from Isfahan, Iran


1 Medical School; Medical Students Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

2 Isfahan Kidney Diseases Research Center; Department of Nephrology, Al-Zahra Hospital, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

3 Department of Emergency Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran


Background: Nephrolithiasis is a major public health problem worldwide. In recent years, growing evidence suggest that this disease may originate from underlying metabolic disorders. This is the first study that reports the frequency of different metabolic abnormalities among patients with nephrolithiasis in Isfahan, a large central province of Iran.
Materials and Methods: From the time period between March 2009 and August 2010, 437 nephrolithiasis patients in Isfahan province enrolled in this study. Metabolic evaluation was performed by obtaining a 24-hours urine sample and fasting venous blood draw. We analyzed urine samples for volume, creatinine, calcium, citrate, oxalate, uric acid, sodium, and cystine. Fasting blood samples were assessed for serum calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, uric acid, albumin, creatinine and blood urea nitrogen.
Results: The mean age was 46 ± 13.8 years (rang: 18-87). Nearly 50% were first time stone formers. The most common metabolic abnormalities were hypocitraturia (40.5%) and hypernatriuria (31.8%) that was followed by hyperoxaluria (28.8%). Hypercalciuria was detected only in 9.2% of the cases.
Conclusion: Although, high calcium excretion was the most frequent metabolic derangement in several similar studies, in our province with considerably high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency, it is not frequent among nephrolithiasis patients. Instead, other metabolic risk factors were in higher frequencies.


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