A study of psychological well-being in people with multiple sclerosis and their primary caregivers


1 Department of Counseling, Azad University of Khomeini Shahr, Iran

2 Department of Neurology, Isfahan Neurosciences Research Center, AlZahra Hospital, Iran

3 Department of Neurology, Shiahid Beheshti Hospital, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran


Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common disabling disease of the central nervous system. In these patients, fatigue is the most common symptom that causes disorder in the work, social activities and daily functions of the patients. Given the assumption that MS reduces the patients' psychological well-being, this study aimed at assessing the psychological well-being of both the patients and their primary caregivers.
Materials and Methods: Current research as a descriptive study was conducted on 200 MS patients and 200 primary caregivers. For data collection, the Reef questionnaire was used to determine psychological well-being of these individuals. Data were analyzed using SPSS software.
 According to the obtained results, the mean duration of MS was estimated 6.37 years. The psychological well-being score of the people with MS and their primary caregivers was slightly higher than average. The total score of psychological well-being in primary caregivers was higher than the patients. Conclusion: The mean score of psychological well-being subscales was significantly different in patients and their caregivers. Regarding the autonomy subscale, there was a significant different in patients with MS, that is, it was lower than average. In terms of two subscales of "positive relationship with others" and "personal growth," there was no difference between people with MS and the primary caregivers, and for other subscales, the mean score of caregivers was higher than the patients.


Hauser SL, Good Kin DE. Multiple sclerosis. In: Braunwald E, Fauci A. Harrison's principle of internal medicine. 18 th ed. New York. McGraw Hill; 2012. p. 2452-61.  Back to cited text no. 1
Yozhatiran N, Baskurt F, Baskurt Z, Ozakbas S, Idiman E. Motor assessment of upper extremity function and its relation with fatigue, cognitive function and quality of life in multiple sclerosis patients. J Neurol Sci 2006;246:117-22.  Back to cited text no. 2
Kurtzke JF, Wallin MT. Epidemiology. In: Burks JS, Jahnson KP, editors. Multiple Sclerosis: Diagnosis, Managementband Rehabilitation. New York: Demos Medical publishing; 2000. p. 1-32.  Back to cited text no. 3
DeBolt LS, McCubbin JA. The effects of home-based resistance exercise on balance, power, and mobility in adults with multiple sclerosis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2004;85:290-7.  Back to cited text no. 4
Taghizadeh M, Asemi M. Assess the nutritional status of patients with MS. 3Th International Congress of MS [Persian]. Iran 2006;152-3.  Back to cited text no. 5
Allahbakhshian M, Jaffarpour M, Parvizy S, Haghani H. A survey on relationship between spiritual wellbeing and quality of life in multiple sclerosis patients. Zah J Res Med Sci 2010;12:29-33.  Back to cited text no. 6
Hart S, Fonareva I, Merluzzi N, Mohr DC. Treatment for depression and its relationship to improvement in quality of life and psychological well-being in multiple sclerosis patients. Qual Life Res 2005;14:695-703.  Back to cited text no. 7
Waren S, Waren KG, Cockerill R. Emotional sterss and coping in multiple sclerosis (MS) exacerbations. J Psychosom Res 1991;35:37-47.  Back to cited text no. 8
Borkoles E, Nicholls AR, Bell K, Butterly R, Polman RC. The lived experience of people diagnosed with multiple sclerosis in relation to exercise. Psychol Health 2008;23:427-41.  Back to cited text no. 9
Lyubomirsky S, Tkach C, Dimatteo MR. What are the differences between happiness and self- esteem. Soc Indic Res 2006;78:363-404.  Back to cited text no. 10
Khezri-Moghaddam N, Ghorbani N, Hadi Bahrami-Ehsan H, Rostami R. Efficacy of group therapy on reduction of psychological signs of multiple sclerosis patients. J Clin Psychol 2012;4:13-22.  Back to cited text no. 11
Ryff CD, Singer B. Psychological well-being: Meaning measurement and implications for psychotherapy research. Psychother Psychosom 1996;65:14-23.  Back to cited text no. 12
Bayani AA, Ashoor Koochekya M, Bayani A. Reliability and validity of Ryff's psychological well-being scales. Iran Psychiatry Clin Psychol 2008;14:146-51.  Back to cited text no. 13
Kenner M, Menon U, Elliott DG. Multiple sclerosis as a painful disease. Int Rev Neurobiol 2007;79:303-21.  Back to cited text no. 14
Holland NJ, Halper J. Multiple sclerosis: A self-care guide to wellness. New York: Demos Medical Publishing; 2005. p. 1-10.  Back to cited text no. 15
Masoudi R, Mohamady E, Nabavi M. [Effect of self- care program on Ourem method on physical dimension of quality of life of MS patient] Persian. J Shahrekord Med Univ 2008;10:21-9.  Back to cited text no. 16
Taraghi Z, Eleiae M. Quality of life of patient member of MS society of mazandaran. Persian. Iran J Neurol 2007;20:51-60.  Back to cited text no. 17
Juraskova I, Chapman J, Butow PN, Jolan A, Zordan R, Kirsten LT, et al. Challenges, needs, rewards, and psychological well-being of multiple sclerosis support-group facilitators. Int J MS Care 2008;10:85-93.  Back to cited text no. 18
Blake DJ, Bodine C. An overview of assistive technology for persons with multiple sclerosis. J Rehabil Res Dev 2002;39:299-312.  Back to cited text no. 19
Chwastiak LA, Gibbons LE, Ehde DM, Sullivan M, Bowen JD, Bombardier CH, et al. Fatigue and psychiatric illness in a large community sample of persons with multiple sclerosis. J Psychosom Res 2005;59:291-8.  Back to cited text no. 20
Janardhan V, Bakshi R. Quality of life in patients with multiple sclerosis: The impact of fatigue and depression. J Neurol Sci 2002;205:51-8.  Back to cited text no. 21
Seligman ME. Positive psychology: Fundamental assumptions. Psychologist 2003;16:126-7.  Back to cited text no. 22