Neurotrophic factors and their effects in the treatment of multiple sclerosis


1 Department of Anatomical Sciences and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

2 epartment of Anatomical Sciences and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

3 Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran


Neurotrophins are small molecules of polypeptides, which include nerve growth factor (NGF) family, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family ligands, and neuropoietic cytokines. These factors have an important role in neural regeneration, remyelination, and regulating the development of the peripheral and central nervous systems (PNS and CNS, respectively) by intracellular signaling through specific receptors. It has been suggested that the pathogenesis of human neurodegenerative disorders may be due to an alteration in the neurotrophic factors and their receptors. The use of neurotrophic factors as therapeutic agents is a novel strategy for restoring and maintaining neuronal function during neurodegenerative disorders such as multiple sclerosis. Innate and adaptive immune responses contribute to pathology of neurodegenerative disorders. Furthermore, autoimmune and mesenchymal stem cells, by the release of neurotrophic factors, have the ability to protect neuronal population and can efficiently suppress the formation of new lesions. So, these cells may be an alternative source for delivering neurotrophic factors into the CNS.


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