Protective effects of Echium amoenum Fisch. and C.A. Mey. against cerebral ischemia in the rats


1 Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Isfahan Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Isfahan, Iran

2 Department of Physiology, Anatomical Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Science, Kashan, Iran

3 Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Isfahan Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Isfahan, Iran

4 Physiology Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Science, Kashan, Iran


Background: This study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of Echium amoenum total anthocyanin extract (ETAE) on partial/transient cerebral ischemia in the rats.
Materials and Methods: Rats received ETAE (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p.) 30 min before the induction of cerebral ischemia. Cerebral ischemia was induced by bilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (BCCAO) for 30 min, followed by 72 h reperfusion. The neurological deficit, brain performance, and sensory motor function were assessed 48 h and 72 h after surgery. After sacrification, the brains were evaluated for myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and histopathological changes.
Results: Our results showed that motor function significantly decreased in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) group as compared to the sham group. Histopathological analysis exhibited the shrinkage and atrophy of the neurons in I/R group. ETAE at the dose of 200 mg/kg improved spontaneous activity and memory induced by cerebral ischemia compared to the control group and also decreased brain MPO activity following cerebral ischemia. However, it could not affect the ability to climbing, body proprioception, vibrissae touch and brain water content. In addition, pretreatment with ETAE at higher doses significantly reduced ischemia-induced neuronal loss of the brain.
Conclusion: The anthocyanin rich fraction from E. amoenum was found to have protective effects against some brain damages postischemic reperfusion . However, further researches are required for investigating the exact mechanisms of the effect of this plant in the prevention of cerebral ischemia in human.


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