Risk factor assessment of stroke and its awareness among stroke survivors: A prospective study


1 Department of Pharmacy Practice, St. Peter's Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hanamkonda, India

2 Department of Pharmacy Practice, St. Peter's Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hanamkonda; Pharmacy Management, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka, India

3 Department of Pharmacy Practice, St. Peter's Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hanamkonda; Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy, Balaji Institute of Pharmacy, Laknepally, Narsampet, Warangal, Telangana, India


Background: Stroke is the second most common cause of death and major cause of disability worldwide. The objective of this study is to identify the major risk factors and assess the awareness among the stroke survivors.
Materials and Methods: A prospective study was conducted at super specialty hospital, from December 2010 to July 2011. All the stroke patients of the age >25 years with either sex admitted in the hospital were included in the study. In order to assess the awareness among the stroke survivors, questionnaire established on the risk factors for stroke from the previously published studies.
Results: A total of 100 patients with stroke or cerebrovascular accident were included in the study. Of 100 patients, 73% patients had ischemic stroke and 26% patients had hemorrhagic stroke. The mean age of the patients was 50 years and the incidence of stroke was predominant in males 73%, followed by females 27. It was observed that 70% of patients were hypertensives, 28% were diabetics, 27% were alcoholics, and 24% of patients had a habit of smoking, followed by others. The knowledge of the risk factors for stroke in stroke survivors was also very low, and the knowledge was varied among the subjects according to their level of educational status.
Conclusion: This study reveals that hypertension is the most common risk factor for stroke followed by diabetes, smoking, and dyslipidemia. The awareness of risk factor among stroke survivors was poor.


Choi-Kwon S, Kim JS. Lifestyle factors and risk of stroke in Seoul, South Korea. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 1998;7:414-20.  Back to cited text no. 1
Das SK. WHO steps stroke surveillance system: Feasibility in India. Indian J Med Res 2009;130:359-60.  Back to cited text no. 2
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
Workshop Report on Stroke Surveillance in India. Held on 13-15, November, 2006, New Delhi. Available from: http://www. [Last cited on 2012 Nov 10].  Back to cited text no. 3
The World Health Organization MONICA Project (monitoring trends and determinants in cardiovascular disease): A major international collaboration. WHO MONICA Project Principal Investigators. J Clin Epidemiol 1988;41:105-14.  Back to cited text no. 4
Fagan SC, David CH. Stroke. In: Dipiro JT, Talbert RL, Yee GC, Matzke GR, Wells BG, Posey LM, editors. Pharmacotherapy – A Pathophysiologic Approach. 7th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Companies; 2008. p. 406-15.  Back to cited text no. 5
Idris I, Thomson GA, Sharma JC. Diabetes mellitus and stroke. Int J Clin Pract 2006;60:48-56.  Back to cited text no. 6
Bogousslavsky J, Castillo V, Kumral E, Henriques I, Melle GV. Stroke subtypes and hypertension. Primary hemorrhage vs infarction, large- vs small-artery disease. Arch Neurol 1996;53:265-9.  Back to cited text no. 7
Shinton R, Beevers G. Meta-analysis of relation between cigarette smoking and stroke. BMJ 1989;298:789-94.  Back to cited text no. 8
Kawachi I, Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, Manson JE, Rosner B, et al. Smoking cessation and decreased risk of stroke in women. JAMA 1993;269:232-6.  Back to cited text no. 9
Camargo CA Jr. Moderate alcohol consumption and stroke. The epidemiologic evidence. Stroke 1989;20:1611-26.  Back to cited text no. 10
Jamrozik K, Broadhurst RJ, Anderson CS, Stewart-Wynne EG. The role of lifestyle factors in the etiology of stroke. A population-based case-control study in Perth, Western Australia. Stroke 1994;25:51-9.  Back to cited text no. 11
Beilin LJ, Puddey IB. Alcohol, hypertension and cardiovascular disease – Implications for management. Clin Exp Hypertens 1993;15:1157-70.  Back to cited text no. 12
Lang T, Nicaud V, Darné B, Rueff B. Improving hypertension control among excessive alcohol drinkers: A randomised controlled trial in France. The WALPA Group. J Epidemiol Community Health 1995;49:610-6.  Back to cited text no. 13
National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). Third report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III) final report. Circulation 2002;106:3143-421.  Back to cited text no. 14
Amarenco P, Steg PG. The paradox of cholesterol and stroke. Lancet 2007;370:1803-4.  Back to cited text no. 15
Hokanson JE, Austin MA. Plasma triglyceride level is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease independent of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level: A meta-analysis of population-based prospective studies. J Cardiovasc Risk 1996;3:213-9.  Back to cited text no. 16
Wolf PA, Abbott RD, Kannel WB. Atrial fibrillation: A major contributor to stroke in the elderly. The Framingham Study. Arch Intern Med 1987;147:1561-4.  Back to cited text no. 17
Isles CG, Walker LM, Beevers GD, Brown I, Cameron HL, Clarke J, et al. Mortality in patients of the Glasgow Blood Pressure Clinic. J Hypertens 1986;4:141-56.  Back to cited text no. 18
Kannel WB, Cupples LA, Ramaswami R, Stokes J 3rd, Kreger BE, Higgins M. Regional obesity and risk of cardiovascular disease; the Framingham Study. J Clin Epidemiol 1991;44:183-90.  Back to cited text no. 19