Frequency of human platelet antigens −1 to −5 and −15 in Turkmen blood donors


1 Iranian Blood Transfusion Research Center, High Institute for Research and Education in Transfusion Medicine, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Biochemistry and Hematology, Faculty of Medicine, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, Iran


Background: Due to the presence of platelet antigen polymorphisms, human platelet membrane glycoproteins can be identified as an alloantigen or autoantigen. The aim of this study was to determine the frequencies of human platelet antigens (HPAs)-1 to-5 and-15 in Turkmen blood donors and establish a panel of accredited HPAs negative donors as well as an HPA-typed platelet donor registry.
Materials and Methods: HPA-1 to-5 and-15 typing was performed by the polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific primer techniques on 80 unrelated Turkmen donors who were referred to Aq-Qala Blood Transfusion Center in Golestan Province from September 2018 to October 2019.
Results: The frequencies of HPA phenotypes were determined as follows: HPA-1aa: 92.5%, HPA-1ab: 7.5%, HPA-2aa: 77.5%, HPA-2ab: 20.0%, HPA-2bb: 2.5%, HPA-3aa: 75.3%, HPA-3ab: 50%, HPA-3bb: 11.2%, HPA-4aa: 100%, HPA-5aa: 78.5%, HPA-5ab: 21.5%, HPA-15aa: 41.2%, HPA-15ab: 56.2% and HPA-15bb: 17.5%.
Conclusion: Determining the genotype of HPAs that play an important role in platelet refractory can improve the management of alloimmunization due to the incompatibility of HPAs between the recipients and donors. Therefore, the registration process for national platelet donors can help patients accelerate and improve the quality of transfused platelets.


Curtis BR, McFarland JG. Human platelet antigens – 2013. Vox Sang 2014;106:93-102.  Back to cited text no. 1
Al-Ouda S, Al-Banyan A, Abdel Gader A, Bayoumy N, Al-Gahtani F. Gene frequency of human platelet alloantigens-1 to-6 and-15 in Saudi blood donors. Transfus Med 2016;26:220-4.  Back to cited text no. 2
Shaiegan M, Ghasemi A, Zadsar M, Ahmadi J, Samiee S, Madani T. Human platelet antigens polymorphisms: Association to primary immune thrombocytopenia in the Iranian patients. Iran J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2020;11:41-50.  Back to cited text no. 3
Kjær M, Geisen C, Akkök ÇA, Wikman A, Sachs U, Bussel JB, et al. Strategies to develop a prophylaxis for the prevention of HPA-1a immunization and fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia. Transfus Apher Sci 2020;59:102712.  Back to cited text no. 4
Ghasemi A, Zadsar M, Shaiegan M, Samiei S, Namvar A, Rasouli M, et al. Human platelet antigens polymorphisms; association to the development of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C. J Med Virol 2020;92:45-52.  Back to cited text no. 5
Tiller H, Husebekk A, Ahlen MT, Stuge TB, Skogen B. Current perspectives on fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia – Increasing clinical concerns and new treatment opportunities. Int J Womens Health 2017;9:223-34.  Back to cited text no. 6
Shaiegan M, Ghasemi A, Madani T, Samiee S, Bayat B, Mohammadi S, et al. Gene frequencies of human platelet antigen-1 to-5 and-15 in the Iranian population. ISBT Sci Ser 2020;15:273-80.  Back to cited text no. 7
Kupatawintu P, Nathalang O, O-Charoen R, Patmasiriwat P. Gene frequencies of the HPA-1 to 6 and Gov human platelet antigens in Thai blood donors. Immunohematology 2015;21:5-9.  Back to cited text no. 8
Tan JY, Lian LH, Nadarajan VS. Genetic polymorphisms of human platelet antigens-1 to -6, and -15 in the Malaysian population. Blood Transfus 2012;10:368-76.  Back to cited text no. 9
Azizi SG, Samiee S, Shaiegan M, Zadsar M. Genotyping of human platelet antigen-1 to -5 and -15 by polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP) and real-time PCR in Azeri blood donors. Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol 2021;20:350-63.  Back to cited text no. 10
Halle L, Bach KH, Martageix C, Bianchi F, Lê T Kim T, Morel-Kopp M, et al. Eleven human platelet systems studied in the Vietnamese and Ma'ohis Polynesian populations. Tissue Antigens 2014;63:34-40.  Back to cited text no. 11
Kulkarni B, Mohanty D, Ghosh K. Frequency distribution of human platelet antigens in the Indian population. Transfus Med 2005;15:119-24.  Back to cited text no. 12
Shih M, Liu T, Lin I, Lin S, Chen C, Chang J. Gene frequencies of the HPA-1 to HPA-13, Oe and Gov platelet antigen alleles in Taiwanese, Indonesian, Filipino and Thai populations. Int J Mol Med 2013;12:609-14.  Back to cited text no. 13
Feng M, Liu D, Shen W, Wang J, Guo Z, Zhang X, et al. Establishment of an HPA-1-to-16-typed platelet donor registry in China. Transfus Med 2016;16:369-74.  Back to cited text no. 14
Pavkovic M, Petlichkovski A, Strezova A, Arsov T, Trajkov D, Spiroski M. Gene frequencies of human platelet antigens in the Macedonian population. Tissue Antigens 2006;67:241-6.  Back to cited text no. 15
Salem AH, Abdel Hamed AE, Abdalla EM, Almawi W. Gene frequencies of human platelet alloantigens 1-5 in two Arab populations. Blood Transfus 2014;12 Suppl 1:s281-5.  Back to cited text no. 16
De La Vega Elena C, Nogues N, Fernandez Montoya A, Chialina S, Blanzaco P, Theiller E, et al. Human platelet-specific antigens frequencies in the Argentinean population. Transfus Med 2008;18:83-90.  Back to cited text no. 17
Brouk H, Halle L, Bertrand G, Neche FZ, Ouelaa H, Kaplan C. Human platelet antigen allele frequencies in different Algerian populations. Tissue Antigens 2010;75:673-8.  Back to cited text no. 18