Analysis of operated patients with ocular trauma: A 10-year retrospective study


Department of Ophthalmology, Infectious Ophthalmologic Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran


Background: Ocular trauma is one of the most common causes of hospitalization in patients with ocular injuries. It imposes many direct and indirect physical and psychological costs on the patient and the community.
Materials and Methods: The present descriptive cross-sectional and retrospective study includes all patients with ocular trauma who underwent surgery in the referral center's ophthalmic operating room for 10 years. A checklist was completed for each patient, including demographic information and the variables required for the study. A total of 927 patients who underwent eye surgery due to ocular trauma were eligible for the study. All descriptive data were reported as the mean plus standard deviation for quantitative variables and distribution tables and frequency percentage for qualitative variables. Inferential tests such as independent t-test and Chi-square test were used to evaluate the research questions.
Results: This study showed that most ocular traumas occur at a young age and mostly in males. The types of trauma in the studied eyes were divided into penetrating and non-penetrating in different age groups. The results showed that the most common type of surgery was corneal laceration repair, and in all patients, visual acuity improved significantly after surgery. In this study, a total of 81% of patients underwent only one operation.
Conclusions: Training and caring for children and adolescents about high-risk behaviors and educating industry professionals to wear goggles, and increase workplace safety can reduce these types of trauma.


Sukati V, Hansraj R. A retrospective analysis of eye injuries in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Afr Vis Eye Health 2012;71:159-65.  Back to cited text no. 1
Kuhn F, Morris R, Witherspoon CD. Birmingham eye trauma terminology (BETT): Terminology and classification of mechanical eye injuries. Ophthalmol Clin North Am 2002;15:139-43, v.  Back to cited text no. 2
Elsayed E, Saleh S, Sabry D, Hassan A. Causes and clinical manifestations of ocular trauma. Delta J Ophthalmol 2019;20:166-71.  Back to cited text no. 3
  [Full text]  
Qiu HY, Zhang MN, Zhang Y, Jiang CH. The survey of the causes of eye injury of various services in China. Mil Med 2011;176:1051-5.  Back to cited text no. 4
Ahmadabadi M, Alipour F, Tabataei S, Karkhane R, Nili E. Sharp-object-induced open-globe injuries in Iranian children admitted to a major tertiary center: A prospective review of 125 cases. Ophthalmic Res 2011;45:149-54.  Back to cited text no. 5
Reddy SC. Superglue injuries of the eye. Int J Ophthalmol 2012;5:634-7.  Back to cited text no. 6
Wang W, Zhou Y, Zeng J, Shi M, Chen B. Epidemiology and clinical characteristics of patients hospitalized for ocular trauma in South-Central China. Acta Ophthalmol 2017;95:e503-10.  Back to cited text no. 7
Madan AH, Joshi RS, Wadekar PD. Ocular trauma in pediatric age group at a tertiary eye care center in central Maharashtra, India. Clin Ophthalmol 2020;14:1003-9.  Back to cited text no. 8
Alem KD, Arega DD, Weldegiorgis ST, Agaje BG, Tigneh EG. Profile of ocular trauma in patients presenting to the department of ophthalmology at Hawassa University: Retrospective study. PLoS One 2019;14:e0213893.  Back to cited text no. 9
Yu J, Chen Y, Miao J, Zhao M, Keng C, Wang X, et al. Doubles trouble-85 cases of ocular trauma in badminton: Clinical features and prevention. Br J Sports Med 2020;54:23-6.  Back to cited text no. 10
Bazzazi N., Akbarzadeh S, Yavarikia M, Hosseinpour Z. Epidemiologic evaluation of ocular trauma in patients admitted to ophthalmology ward of Farshchian Hospital in Hamadan in 2012. Avicenna J Clin Med 2014;21:25-31.  Back to cited text no. 11
Cao H, Li L, Zhang M. Epidemiology of patients hospitalized for ocular trauma in the Chaoshan region of China, 2001-2010. PLoS One 2012;7:e48377.  Back to cited text no. 12
Yong GY, Pan SW, Humayun Akhter F, Law TN, Toh TH. Determinant factors of poor visual outcome after ocular trauma: A retrospective study in central Sarawak, Malaysia. Asia Pac J Ophthalmol (Philadelphia, Pa) 2016;5:137-42.  Back to cited text no. 13
Cai M, Zhang J. Epidemiological characteristics of work-related ocular trauma in southwest region of China. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2015;12:9864-75.  Back to cited text no. 14
Duan F, Chen X, Zhang S, Qi X, Shi W, Gao H. Clinical characteristics and visual outcomes of patients hospitalized for ocular trauma in shandong province, China. J Ophthalmol 2020;2020:5826263.   Back to cited text no. 15
Martin-Prieto S, Álvarez-Peregrina C, Thuissard-Vasallo I, Catalina-Romero C, Calvo-Bonacho E, Villa-Collar C, et al. Description of the epidemiological characteristics of work-related eye injuries in Spain: A retrospective study. BMJ Open 2020;10:e035696.  Back to cited text no. 16
Koo L, Kapadia MK, Singh RP, Sheridan R, Hatton MP. Gender differences in etiology and outcome of open globe injuries. J Trauma 2005;59:175-8.  Back to cited text no. 17
Onakpoya OH, Adeoye A, Adeoti CO, Ajite K. Epidemiology of ocular trauma among the elderly in a developing country. Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2010;17:315-20.  Back to cited text no. 18
Syal E, Dhawan M, Singh S. To study the epidemiological and clinical profile of ocular trauma at a tertiary health-care facility. Delta J Ophthalmol 2018;19:259-67.  Back to cited text no. 19
  [Full text]  
Atkins EJ, Newman NJ, Biousse V. Post-traumatic visual loss. Rev Neurol Dis 2008;5:73-81.  Back to cited text no. 20
Gupta R, Gupta S, Chauhan L. Predicting visual outcome after open globe injury using classification and regression tree model: The Moradabad ocular trauma study. Can J Ophthalmol 2019;54:473-8.  Back to cited text no. 21
Hatton MP, Thakker MM, Ray S. Orbital and adnexal trauma associated with open-globe injuries. Ophthalmic Plastic Reconstr Surg 2002;18:458-61.  Back to cited text no. 22
Agrawal R, Rao G, Naigaonkar R, Ou X, Desai S. Prognostic factors for vision outcome after surgical repair of open globe injuries. Indian J Ophthalmol 2011;59:465-70.  Back to cited text no. 23
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
Man CY, Steel D. Visual outcome after open globe injury: A comparison of two prognostic models—the ocular trauma score and the classification and regression tree. Eye 2010;24:84-9.  Back to cited text no. 24
Bigoniya P, Shukla A, Singh C. A survey on the occupational health status of gardeners in bhopal, India. Indian J Community Med 2010;35:487-90.  Back to cited text no. 25
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
Liu X, Liu Z, Liu Y, Zhao L, Xu S, Su G, et al. determination of visual prognosis in children with open globe injuries. Eye (London, England) 2014;28:852-6.  Back to cited text no. 26
Armstrong GW, Kim JG, Linakis JG, Mello MJ, Greenberg PB. Pediatric eye injuries presenting to United States emergency departments: 2001-2007. Graefe's Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2013;251:629-36.  Back to cited text no. 27
Cross PS, Karges JR, Horkey MA, Kolb GA, Alexander KL, Knippling AL, et al. Management of acute sports injuries and medical conditions by South Dakota high school head coaches: Assessment via case scenarios. S D Med 2012;65:97-9, 101-5, 107.  Back to cited text no. 28
Kelly SP, Reeves GM. Penetrating eye injuries from writing instruments. Clin Ophthalmol 2012;6:41-4.  Back to cited text no. 29