Background: Aprepitant is one of the effective antiemetic drugs that usually used for a period of 3 days for prevention of anthracycline/cyclophosphamide (AC) induced nausea and vomiting. However, many patients still experience nausea and vomiting on days 3–5. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an increase in duration of aprepitant consumption from 3 to 6 days on the prevention of nausea and vomiting in women receiving AC chemotherapy.
Materials and Methods: It was a randomized, crossover, controlled clinical trial. Women with breast cancer and scheduled to receive AC regimens were enrolled in this study. Enrolled patients were randomized into two groups. Group I received 3 days regimen of aprepitant in the first course of AC regimen chemotherapy and 6 days regimen of aprepitant in the second course; Group II received 6 days regimen followed by 3 days regimen. For nausea and vomiting assessment, we used Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group questionnaire.
Results: Forty-nine patients were enrolled in this study. Sixty-three percent achieved a complete response with 6 days aprepitant regimen compared with 39% with 3 days regimen (P < 0.001). Ten percent had at least one vomiting episode during the 6 days regimen versus 15% with 3 days regimen (P = 0.034). Nausea was significantly more severe in 3 days regimen of aprepitant than in 6 days regimen.
Conclusion: Increase in the duration of aprepitant consumption through 6 days resulted in significantly better prevention of nausea and vomiting than 3 days consumption for women receiving AC chemotherapy.
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