Effect of different types of surfactants on the physical properties and stability of carvedilol nano-niosomes


Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy and Novel Drug Delivery Systems Research Centre, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran


Background: Niosomes are non-ionic surfactant vesicles used as drug carriers for encapsulating both hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of different surfactants on the physical properties and stability of carvedilol niosomes designed to improve oral bioavailability.
Materials and Methods: Different niosomal formulations were prepared using a film hydration method, with various mixtures of different non-ionic surfactants including Span 20, 40, and 60, and also Tween 20, 40, and 60, along with cholesterol. The physicochemical characteristics of the formulations were evaluated in vitro.

Results: The drug encapsulation efficiency was reduced by using lauryl (C12) chain containing surfactants, that is, Span/Tween. Cholesterol content and drug entrapment were the main factors affecting the mean particle size of the niosomes. The drug release profiles from most of the formulations were fitted well with the Baker-Lonsdale model, indicating a diffusion-based drug release mechanism. Niosomes prepared from 50 and 40% of the cholesterol with 25 or 30% of Span/Tween 60 showed the highest stability due to their high transition temperature and solid state feature of these surfactants.
Conclusions: From the results obtained, it may be concluded that nanoniosomes are promising stable carriers for the oral delivery of carvedilol.


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