Background: Access dilation is the most important part of percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (PCNL) that is done by different methods, especially metal telescoping and one shot. In this study, two different methods of access dilation one shot and telescoping were compared. Materials and Methods: In observational cross-sectional study, 240 patients who were a candidate for PCNL were selected and randomly divided into two groups. The first group was undergone one-shot method and the second group was undergone telescoping method. The decrease in hemoglobin (Hb), duration of hospitalization and the time of radiation exposure during access dilation was compared in two groups by SPSS software version 21, (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results: The decrease of Hb level after intervention in one-shot group was 1.08 ± 1.23 g/dl and in telescoping, group was 1.51 ± 1.08 g/dl with no difference statistically (P = 0.37). The mean duration of hospitalization in one shot and telescoping group were 2.36 ± 0.67 and 2.28 ± 0.61 days, respectively. According to t-test, there was no significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.37). Average radiation exposure in one shot group was 7.13 s and in telescoping, group was 35.75 s, and there was a significant difference between the two groups (P < 0.001). Conclusion: One-shot method is superior to telescoping method due to less time for radiation exposure and no more blood loss and other complications during PCNL.
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