Cell-free Fetal Nucleic Acid Identifier Markers in Maternal Circulation



1 Department of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, School of Medicine, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr 751463341, Iran

2 Department of Genetics and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan 81744-176, Iran


From the discovery of cell-free fetal (cff)-DNA in 1997 so far, many studies have been performed on various aspects of cff-nucleic acid. It is undoubted that currently, invasive prenatal diagnosis progresses to the noninvasive test. However, there are many problems. One of the most challenging issues in this field is differentiation and detection of the small amount of cff-nucleic acid in maternal plasma. Many markers and methods have been used for this purpose. This review makes an attempt to review and compare the studies in the field. Six identifier markers including Y-specific sequence, polymorphisms, epigenetic difference, DNA size difference, fetal mRNA, and microRNA as well as the advantages and disadvantages of each marker are discussed. This review provides a relatively perfect set on cff-nucleic acid biomarkers in various physiological and pathological status of pregnancy, helping to review and compare the prior obtained results, and improving designation in future studies.


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