Electrospun Gelatin/poly(Glycerol Sebacate) Membrane with Controlled Release of Antibiotics for Wound Dressing

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Biomaterial, Nanotechnology and Tissue Engineering, School of Advanced Technology in Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

2 Department of Pharmaceutics, Isfahan Pharmaceutical Science Research Center, School of Pharmacy, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran


Background: The most important risk that threatens the skin wounds is infections. Therefore, fabrication of a membrane as a wound dressing with the ability of antibiotic delivery in a proper delivery rate is especially important. Materials and Methods: Poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS) was prepared from sebacic acid and glycerol with 1:1 ratio; then, it was added to gelatin in the 1:3 ratio and was dissolved in 80% (v/v) acetic acid, and finally, ciprofloxacin was added in 10% (w/v) of polymer solution. The gelatin/PGS membrane was fabricated using an electrospinning method. The membrane was cross-linked using ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiim (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) in different time periods to achieve a proper drug release rate. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was being used to manifest the peaks of polymers and drug in the membrane. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to evaluate the morphology, fibers diameter, pore size, and porosity before and after crosslinking process. Ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectrophotometry was used to show the ciprofloxacin release from the cross-linked membrane. Results: FTIR analysis showed the characteristic peaks of gelatin, PGS, and ciprofloxacin without any added peaks after the crosslinking process. SEM images revealed that nanofibers' size increased during the crosslinking process and porosity was higher than 80% before and after crosslinking process. UV-visible spectrophotometry showed the proper rate of ciprofloxacin release occurred from cross-linked membrane that remaining in EDC/NHS ethanol solution for 120 min. Conclusion: The obtained results suggest that this recently developed gelatin/PGS membrane with controlled release of ciprofloxacin could be a promising biodegradable membrane for wound dressing.


Kamel RA, Ong JF, Eriksson E, Junker JP, Caterson EJ. Tissue engineering of skin. J Am Coll Surg 2013;217:533-55.  Back to cited text no. 1
Braghirolli DI, Steffens D, Pranke P. Electrospinning for regenerative medicine: A review of the main topics. Drug Discov Today 2014;19:743-53.  Back to cited text no. 2
Rieger KA, Birch NP, Schiffman JD. Designing electrospun nanofiber mats to promote wound healing – A review. J Mater Chem B 2013;1:4531-41.  Back to cited text no. 3
Mohiti-Asli M, Pourdeyhimi B, Loboa EG. Novel, silver-ion-releasing nanofibrous scaffolds exhibit excellent antibacterial efficacy without the use of silver nanoparticles. Acta Biomater 2014;10:2096-104.  Back to cited text no. 4
Elsner JJ, Berdicevsky I, Zilberman M.In vitro microbial inhibition and cellular response to novel biodegradable composite wound dressings with controlled release of antibiotics. Acta Biomater 2011;7:325-36.  Back to cited text no. 5
Roy DC, Tomblyn S, Isaac KM, Kowalczewski CJ, Burmeister DM, Burnett LR, et al. Ciprofloxacin-loaded keratin hydrogels reduce infection and support healing in a porcine partial-thickness thermal burn. Wound Repair Regen 2016;24:657-68.  Back to cited text no. 6
Agarwal T, Narayan R, Maji S, Behera S, Kulanthaivel S, Maiti TK, et al. Gelatin/carboxymethyl chitosan based scaffolds for dermal tissue engineering applications. Int J Biol Macromol 2016;93(Pt B):1499-506.  Back to cited text no. 7
Kharaziha M, Nikkhah M, Shin SR, Annabi N, Masoumi N, Gaharwar AK, et al. PGS: Gelatin nanofibrous scaffolds with tunable mechanical and structural properties for engineering cardiac tissues. Biomaterials 2013;34:6355-66.  Back to cited text no. 8
Wang Y, Ameer GA, Sheppard BJ, Langer R. A tough biodegradable elastomer. Nat Biotechnol 2002;20:602-6.  Back to cited text no. 9
Moorhoff C, Li Y, Cook WD, Braybrook C, Chen QZ. Characterization of the prepolymer and gel of biocompatible poly (xylitol sebacate) in comparison with poly (glycerol sebacate) using a combination of mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance. Polym Int 2015;64:668-88.  Back to cited text no. 10
Rai R, Tallawi M, Grigore A, Boccaccini AR. Synthesis, properties and biomedical applications of poly (glycerol sebacate)(PGS): A review. Progr Polym Sci 2012;37:1051-78.  Back to cited text no. 11
Steyaert I, Rahier H, van Vlierberghe S, Olijve J, De Clerck K. Gelatin nanofibers: Analysis of triple helix dissociation temperature and cold-water-solubility. Food Hydrocoll 2016;57:200-8.  Back to cited text no. 12
Chen Q, Liang S, Thouas GA. Elastomeric biomaterials for tissue engineering. Prog Polym Sci 2013;38:584-671.  Back to cited text no. 13
Kevadiya BD, Rajkumar S, Bajaj HC, Chettiar SS, Gosai K, Brahmbhatt H, et al. Biodegradable gelatin-ciprofloxacin-montmorillonite composite hydrogels for controlled drug release and wound dressing application. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2014;122:175-83.  Back to cited text no. 14
Han F, Dong Y, Song A, Yin R, Li S. Alginate/chitosan based bi-layer composite membrane as potential sustained-release wound dressing containing ciprofloxacin hydrochloride. Appl Surf Sci 2014;311:626-34.  Back to cited text no. 15
Attia KA, Nassar MW, El-Zeiny MB, Serag A. Zero order and signal processing spectrophotometric techniques applied for resolving interference of metronidazole with ciprofloxacin in their pharmaceutical dosage form. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2016;154:232-6.  Back to cited text no. 16
Zhou Z, Jiang JQ. Reaction kinetics and oxidation products formation in the degradation of ciprofloxacin and ibuprofen by ferrate(VI). Chemosphere 2015 Jan 31;119:S95-100.  Back to cited text no. 17
Attia KA, Nassar MW, El-Zeiny MB, Serag A. Stability-indicating methods for the analysis of ciprofloxacin in the presence of its acid induced degradation product: A comparative study. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2016;159:219-22.  Back to cited text no. 18
Unnithan AR, Barakat NA, Pichiah PB, Gnanasekaran G, Nirmala R, Cha YS, et al. Wound-dressing materials with antibacterial activity from electrospun polyurethane-dextran nanofiber mats containing ciprofloxacin HCl. Carbohydr Polym 2012;90:1786-93.  Back to cited text no. 19
Masoumi N, Jean A, Zugates JT, Johnson KL, Engelmayr GC Jr. Laser microfabricated poly(glycerol sebacate) scaffolds for heart valve tissue engineering. J Biomed Mater Res A 2013;101:104-14.  Back to cited text no. 20
Mwangi JW, Ofner CM 3rd. Crosslinked gelatin matrices: Release of a random coil macromolecular solute. Int J Pharm 2004;278:319-27.  Back to cited text no. 21
Yan W, Liu D, Tan D, Yuan P, Chen M. FTIR spectroscopy study of the structure changes of palygorskite under heating. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2012;97:1052-7.  Back to cited text no. 22
Amjadian S, Seyedjafari E, Zeynali B, Shabani I. The synergistic effect of nano-hydroxyapatite and dexamethasone in the fibrous delivery system of gelatin and poly(l-lactide) on the osteogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells. Int J Pharm 2016;507:1-11.  Back to cited text no. 23
Sahoo S, Chakraborti C, Behera P, Mishra S. FTIR and Raman spectroscopic investigations of a norfloxacin/carbopol934 polymeric suspension. J Young Pharm 2012;4:138-45.  Back to cited text no. 24
Guo XL, Lu XL, Dong DL, Sun ZJ. Characterization and optimization of glycerol/sebacate ratio in poly(glycerol-sebacate) elastomer for cell culture application. J Biomed Mater Res A 2014;102:3903-7.  Back to cited text no. 25
Yang CX, Lei L, Zhou PX, Zhang Z, Lei ZQ. Preparation and characterization of poly (AA co PVP)/PGS composite and its application for methylene blue adsorption. J Colloid Interface Sci 2015;443:97-104.  Back to cited text no. 26
Guerrero P, Beatty E, Kerry J, de la Caba K. Extrusion of soy protein with gelatin and sugars at low moisture content. J Food Eng 2012;110:53-9.  Back to cited text no. 27
Clarke D, Molinaro S, Tyuftin A, Bolton D, Fanning S, Kerry JP. Incorporation of commercially-derived antimicrobials into gelatin-based films and assessment of their antimicrobial activity and impact on physical film properties. Food Control 2016;64:202-11.  Back to cited text no. 28
Sun ZJ, Wu L, Huang W, Zhang XL, Lu XL, Zheng YF, et al. The influence of lactic on the properties of poly (glycerol–sebacate–lactic acid). Mater Sci Eng C 2009;29:178-82.  Back to cited text no. 29
Singh B, Dhiman A, Kumar A. Slow release of ciprofloxacin from β-cyclodextrin containing drug delivery system through network formation and supramolecular interactions. Int J Biol Macromol 2016;92:390-400.  Back to cited text no. 30
Širc J, Hobzová R, Kostina N, Munzarová M, Juklícková M, Lhotka M, et al. Morphological characterization of nanofibers: Methods and application in practice. J Nanomater 2012;2012:121.  Back to cited text no. 31
Salehi S, Fathi M, Javanmard SH, Bahners T, Gutmann JS, Ergün S, et al. Generation of PGS/PCL blend nanofibrous scaffolds mimicking corneal stroma structure. Macromol Mater Eng 2014;299:455-69.  Back to cited text no. 32
Vatankhah E, Semnani D, Prabhakaran MP, Tadayon M, Razavi S, Ramakrishna S. Artificial neural network for modeling the elastic modulus of electrospun polycaprolactone/gelatin scaffolds. Acta Biomater 2014;10:709-21.  Back to cited text no. 33