Effect of Magnesium Supplement on Pregnancy Outcomes: A Randomized Control Trial

Document Type : Original Article


Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Alzahra Hospital, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran


Background: Magnesium (Mg) is an essential mineral required to regulate body temperature, nucleic acid, and protein synthesis with an important role in maintaining nerve and muscle cell electrical potentials. It may reduce fetal growth restriction and preeclampsia as well as increase birth weight. This study aimed to assess the effects of consuming Mg supplementation during pregnancy on pregnancy outcomes. Materials and Methods: This is a randomized controlled trial with three sixty populated groups of pregnant women. Participants were randomized to treatment or control groups through random table numbers. Participants with Mg serum levels more than 1.9 mg/dl considered as control group A randomly. They just received one multimineral tablet once a day until the end of pregnancy participants with hypomagnesemia consider as Group B and C. Participants in Group B received one multimineral tablet daily until the end of pregnancy. Participants in Group C received 200 mg effervescent Mg tablet from Vitafit Company once daily for 1 month, and also they consumed one multimineral tablet from Alhavi Company, which contains 100 mg Mg, once a day until the end of pregnancy. Intrauterine growth retardation, preterm labor, maternal body mass index, neonatal weight, pregnancy-induced hypertension, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, cramps of the leg Apgar score were compared between three groups. Results: In all pregnancy outcomes, Group C that received effervescent Mg tablet plus multimineral showed a better result than other groups, and frequency of complications of pregnancy was fewer than the other two groups and showed a significant difference. Conclusion: Mg supplement during pregnancy likely decrease probability occurrence of many complications of pregnancy.


Makrides M, Crosby DD, Bain E, Crowther CA. Magnesium supplementation in pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2014;(4):C:CD000937.  Back to cited text no. 1
McNamara HC, Crowther CA, Brown J. Different treatment regimens of magnesium sulphate for tocolysis in women in preterm labour. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2015;12:CD011200.  Back to cited text no. 2
Zaloga GP. Interpretation of the serum magnesium level. Chest 1989;95:257-8.  Back to cited text no. 3
Mepba H, Eboh L, Banigo D. Effects of processing treatments on the nutritive composition and consumer acceptance of some Nigerian edible leafy vegetables. Afr J Food Agric Nutr Dev 2007;7:1-18.  Back to cited text no. 4
Rock CL, Lovalvo JL, Emenhiser C, Ruffin MT, Flatt SW, Schwartz SJ. Bioavailability of beta-carotene is lower in raw than in processed carrots and spinach in women. J Nutr 1998;128:913-6.  Back to cited text no. 5
Seelig MS. Magnesium Deficiency in the Pathogenesis of Disease: Early Roots of Cardiovascular, Skeletal, and Renal Abnormalities. Newyourk, Springer Science and Business Media; 1980.  Back to cited text no. 6
Hurley L. Magnesium-deficiency in pregnancy and its effects on the fetus. Magnes Bull 1981;3:202-8.  Back to cited text no. 7
Arikan G, Guecer F, Schoell W, Weiss P. Preterm labour during oral magnesium supplementation in uncomplicated pregnancies. Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd 1997;57:491-5.  Back to cited text no. 8
Luke B. Nutrition During Pregnancy: Part I, Weight Gain; Part II, Nutrient Supplements. JAMA. 1991;265(2):281-2.  Back to cited text no. 9
King DE, Mainous AG 3rd, Geesey ME, Woolson RF. Dietary magnesium and C-reactive protein levels. J Am Coll Nutr 2005;24:166-71.  Back to cited text no. 10
Becker W, Lyhne N, Pedersen AN, Aro A, Fogelholm M, Phorsdottir I, et al. Nordic nutrition recommendations 2004-integrating nutrition and physical activity. Scand J Nutr 2004;48:178-87.  Back to cited text no. 11
Young VR. Dietary Reference Intakes: For Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. Washington (DC): National Academies Press; 1997.  Back to cited text no. 12
Mittendorf R, Dambrosia J, Dammann O, Pryde PG, Lee KS, Ben-Ami TE, et al. Association between maternal serum ionized magnesium levels at delivery and neonatal intraventricular hemorrhage. J Pediatr 2002;140:540-6.  Back to cited text no. 13
Arikan GM, Panzitt T, Gücer F, Scholz HS, Reinisch S, Haas J, et al. Course of maternal serum magnesium levels in low-risk gestations and in preterm labor and delivery. Fetal Diagn Ther 1999;14:332-6.  Back to cited text no. 14
Wynn A, Wynn M. Magnesium and other nutrient deficiencies as possible causes of hypertension and low birthweight. Nutr Health 1988;6:69-88.  Back to cited text no. 15
Harrison V, Fawcus S, Jordaan E. Magnesium supplementation and perinatal hypoxia: Outcome of a parallel group randomised trial in pregnancy. BJOG 2007;114:994-1002.  Back to cited text no. 16
Conradt A, Weidinger H, Algayer H. On the role of magnesium in fetal hypotrophy, pregnancy induced hypertension, and pre-eclampsia. Magnes Bull 1984;6:68-76.  Back to cited text no. 17
Dawson EB, Evans DR, Kelly R, Van Hook JW. Blood cell lead, calcium, and magnesium levels associated with pregnancy-induced hypertension and preeclampsia. Biol Trace Elem Res 2000;74:107-16.  Back to cited text no. 18
Dasgupta S, Ghosh D, Seal SL, Kamilya G, Karmakar M, Saha D. Randomized controlled study comparing effect of magnesium sulfate with placebo on fetal umbilical artery and middle cerebral artery blood flow in mild preeclampsia at=34 weeks gestational age. J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2012;38:763-71.  Back to cited text no. 19
Crowther CA, Brown J, McKinlay CJ, Middleton P. Magnesium sulphate for preventing preterm birth in threatened preterm labour. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2014;4:CD001060.  Back to cited text no. 20
Ariza AC, Bobadilla N, Fernández C, Muñoz-Fuentes RM, Larrea F, Halhali A. Effects of magnesium sulfate on lipid peroxidation and blood pressure regulators in preeclampsia. Clin Biochem 2005;38:128-33.  Back to cited text no. 21
Alves JG, de Araújo CA, Pontes IE, Guimarães AC, Ray JG. The BRAzil MAGnesium (BRAMAG) trial: A randomized clinical trial of oral magnesium supplementation in pregnancy for the prevention of preterm birth and perinatal and maternal morbidity. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2014;14:222.  Back to cited text no. 22
Abdul MA, Nasir UI, Khan N, Yusuf MD. Low-dose magnesium sulphate in the control of eclamptic fits: A randomized controlled trial. Arch Gynecol Obstet 2013;287:43-6.  Back to cited text no. 23
Spatling LU, Spatling GA. Magnesium supplementation in pregnancy. A double-blind study. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1988;95(2):120-5.  Back to cited text no. 24
Czeizel AE, Dudás I, Métneki J. Pregnancy outcomes in a randomised controlled trial of periconceptional multivitamin supplementation. Final report. Arch Gynecol Obstet 1994;255:131-9.  Back to cited text no. 25
Roman A, Desai N, Rochelson B, Gupta M, Solanki M, Xue X, et al. Maternal magnesium supplementation reduces intrauterine growth restriction and suppresses inflammation in a rat model. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2013;208:383.e1-7.  Back to cited text no. 26
de Baaij JH, Hoenderop JG, Bindels RJ. Magnesium in man: Implications for health and disease. Physiol Rev 2015;95:1-46.  Back to cited text no. 27
Duley L, Gülmezoglu AM, Henderson-Smart DJ, Chou D. Magnesium sulphate and other anticonvulsants for women with pre-eclampsia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2010;11:CD000025.  Back to cited text no. 28
McDonald SD, Lutsiv O, Dzaja N, Duley L. A systematic review of maternal and infant outcomes following magnesium sulfate for pre-eclampsia/eclampsia in real-world use. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2012;118:90-6.  Back to cited text no. 29
Shaikh K, Das CM, Baloch GH, Abbas T, Fazlani K, Jaffery MH, et al. Magnesium associated complications in pregnant women. World Appl Sci J 2012;17:1074-8.  Back to cited text no. 30
Doyle W, Crawford MA, Wynn AH, Wynn SW. Maternal magnesium intake and pregnancy outcome. Magnes Res 1989;2:205-10.  Back to cited text no. 31
Franz KB. Magnesium intake during pregnancy. Magnesium 1987;6:18-27.  Back to cited text no. 32
Liu FL, Zhang YM, Parés GV, Reidy KC, Zhao WZ, Zhao A, et al. Nutrient intakes of pregnant women and their associated factors in eight cities of China: A cross-sectional study. Chin Med J (Engl) 2015;128:1778-86.  Back to cited text no. 33
Schoenaker DA, Soedamah-Muthu SS, Mishra GD. The association between dietary factors and gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia: A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. BMC Med 2014;12:157.  Back to cited text no. 34
Sibai BM, Villar MA, Bray E. Magnesium supplementation during pregnancy: A double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1989;161:115-9.  Back to cited text no. 35
Rylander R, Vormann J. Magnesium intervention studies-methodological aspects. Magnes Res 2015;28:75-8.  Back to cited text no. 36
Bullarbo M, Ödman N, Nestler A, Nielsen T, Kolisek M, Vormann J, et al. Magnesium supplementation to prevent high blood pressure in pregnancy: A randomised placebo control trial. Arch Gynecol Obstet 2013;288:1269-74.  Back to cited text no. 37
Rudnicki M, Frölich A, Rasmussen WF, McNair P. The effect of magnesium on maternal blood pressure in pregnancy-induced hypertension. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1991;70:445-50.  Back to cited text no. 38
Kovács L, Molnár BG, Huhn E, Bódis L. Magnesium substitution in pregnancy. A prospective, randomized double-blind study. Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd 1988;48:595-600.  Back to cited text no. 39
Zarcone R, Cardone G, Bellini P. Role of magnesium in pregnancy. Panminerva Med 1994;36:168-70.  Back to cited text no. 40