The Effects of Pentoxifylline on Serum Levels of Interleukin 10 and Interferon Gamma and Memory Function in Lipopolysaccharide-induced Inflammation in Rats


1 Institute for Cognitive Science Studies, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

2 Institute for Cognitive Science Studies; Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

4 Cognitive and Neuroscience Research Center, Tehran Medical Sciences Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran


Background: Studies have shown that pentoxifylline (PTX) in addition to protective effects on blood vessels probably has positive influence against the brain inflammation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of PTX on serum levels of interleukin 10 (IL-10) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and passive avoidance learning in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in rats. Materials and Methods: Inflammation was induced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of LPS (0.5 and 5 mg/kg) in male Wistar rats. After a week, PTX (25 mg/kg; i.p.) was injected for 14 days. Passive avoidance learning test was used for evaluation of learning and memory. Serum levels of cytokines were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: The behavioral results did not show any significant effect of LPS and PTX on learning and memory. Both doses of LPS (0.5 and 5 mg/kg) decreased IL-10 significantly (P < 0.05). PTX prevented this reduction just in the LPS 0.5 mg/kg + PTX 25 mg/kg group. Serum level of IFN-γ was increased only in the LPS 0.5 mg/kg + PTX 25 mg/kg group comparing to the LPS 0.5 mg/kg group (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The results showed that LPS-induced inflammation decreased the serum levels of IL-10. PTX could prevent these decreases only in mild inflammation. Both PTX and LPS-induced inflammation had no significant effects on learning and memory; therefore, their effects on CNS require further study.


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