Background: The aim of this study is to determine the predictive value of ultrasonography for results of local steroid injection in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Materials and Methods: This prospective cohort study was conducted during a 1-year period in outpatient clinics of rehabilitation and physical medicine including 35 patients with moderate and severe CTS who receive ultrasonography-guided local steroid injection. The Boston self-assessment questionnaire and electrodiagnosis parameters were recorded at baseline, 1 month, and 3 months after therapy. We also recorded the baseline ultrasonography parameters to determine the predictors of outcome. Results: The sensory severity score and functional status scale along with electrodiagnosis parameters decreased significantly at 1 month (P < 0.001) and remained unchanged after 3 months. Volar bulging was negatively associated with sensory nerve action potential latency (r = −0.392; P = 0.020). Cross-sectional area (CSA) of maximal swelling (MS; r = 0.409; P = 0.015), CSA at 2-cm of MS (r = 0.563; P < 0.001), and CSA at 12-cm of MS (r = 0.521; P = 0.001) correlated positively with compound muscle action potential (CMAP) amplitude while maximal swelling/12-cm MS ratio (r = −0.439; P = 0.008) and maximal swelling/2-cm MS ratio (r = −0.342; P = 0.045) correlated negatively. CSA at 12-cm of MS also correlated positively with CMAP amplitude nerve conduction velocity (r = 0.436; P = 0.010). Conclusion: Volar bulging, CSA of maximal swelling, CSA of MS at 2-cm, and CSA of MS at 12-cm are among the ultrasonographic predictors of response to local steroid injection in patients with CTS.
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