Effect of Ganoderma lucidum Powder on Oxidative Stability, Microbial and Sensory Properties of Emulsion Type Sausage

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Food Technology, School of Nutrition and Food Science, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

2 Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran


Background: Ganoderma lucidum from Ganodermataceae family is a kind of mushroom known to have various therapeutic properties such as lowering high blood sugar and high blood pressure, boosting the immune system as well as its antibacterial and antioxidant effects. Materials and Methods: this study investigated the oxidative stability, microbial and sensory properties of sausage at three different treatments; (i) 1% w/w Ganoderma lucidum powder (GLP) without nitrite as a food preservative (P), (ii) 0.5% w/w GLP with 80 ppm nitrite (N + P), and (iii) sausage with 120 ppm nitrate (N). Lipid oxidation was evaluated using peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid reactive species. Antimicrobial properties were assessed by total plate count (TPC), yeasts and molds, coliforms, Clostridium perfringens, and Staphylococcus aureus. Sensory assessment was evaluated by nine-point hedonic procedure. Results: Samples in N + P treatment showed lower PV than other treatments at the storage period with no significant difference in 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA) between N and N + P. The P group showed the highest TBA value (P < 0.01). TPC remained below maximal permissible limit recommended by ISIRI during 30 days of storage in all sausage formulations (6.9798 log CFU). There was not found any coliforms bacteria, Clostridium perfringens, and S. aureus. The sensory evaluation indicated that there is no significant difference between samples in texture, taste, and smell. The color and overall acceptability of N group were higher and N + P group was closer to N group. Conclusion: The results suggest that G. lucidum powder might be considered as a potential natural preservative for meat products.


Essien E. Sausage Manufacture: Principles and Practice. Cambridge, England: Wood Head Publishing Limited; 2003. p. 5-15.  Back to cited text no. 1
Pearson AM, Gillett TA. Processed Meats. United States: Springer; 2012. p. 211-41.  Back to cited text no. 2
Polic M. Technological and health aspects of using nitrite in meat industry. Tehnologija Mesa (Yugoslavia) 1994;35:25-28.  Back to cited text no. 3
Lijinsky W. Chemistry and Biology of N-Nitroso Compounds. Cambridge: University Press; 1992.  Back to cited text no. 4
Honikel KO. The use and control of nitrate and nitrite for the processing of meat products. Meat Sci 2008;78:68-76.  Back to cited text no. 5
Ulbricht C, Abrams TR, Bent S, Boon H, Costa D, Dacey C, et al. Reishi mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum): Systematic review by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration. J Soc Integr Oncol 2010;8:148-159.  Back to cited text no. 6
Gao Y, Zhou S, Jiang W, Huang M, Dai X. Effects of ganopoly (a Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide extract) on the immune functions in advanced-stage cancer patients. Immunol Invest 2003;32:201-15.  Back to cited text no. 7
Luo J, Lin ZB. Advances of pharmacological effects of triterpenes from Ganoderma lucidum. Yao Xue Xue Bao 2002;37:574-8.  Back to cited text no. 8
Lindequist U, Niedermeyer TH, Jülich WD. The pharmacological potential of mushrooms. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2005;2:285-99.  Back to cited text no. 9
Gao JJ, Min BS, Ahn EM, Nakamura N, Lee HK, Hattori M. New triterpene aldehydes, lucialdehydes A-C, from Ganoderma lucidum and their cytotoxicity against murine and human tumor cells. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2002;50:837-40.  Back to cited text no. 10
Bao XF, Wang XS, Dong Q, Fang JN, Li XY. Structural features of immunologically active polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum. Phytochemistry 2002;59:175-81.  Back to cited text no. 11
Zhou H, Liu G, Huang F, Wu X, Yang H. Improved production, purification and bioactivity of a polysaccharide from submerged cultured Ganoderma lucidum. Arch Pharm Res 2014;37:1530-7.  Back to cited text no. 12
Smith JE, Rowan N, Sullivan R. Medicinal Mushrooms: Their Therapeutic Properties and Current Medical Usage with Special Emphasis on Cancer Treatments. Cancer Research UK; 2002.  Back to cited text no. 13
Sa-Ard P, Sarnthima R, Khammuang S, Kanchanarach W. Antioxidant, antibacterial and DNA protective activities of protein extracts from Ganoderma lucidum. J Food Sci Technol 2015;52:2966-73.  Back to cited text no. 14
Wannasupchue W, Siriamornpun S, Huaisan K, Huaisan J, Meeso N. Effect of adding Ling-zhi (Ganoderma lucidum) on oxidative stability, textural and sensory properties of smoked fish sausage. Thai J Agric Sci 2011;5:505-12.  Back to cited text no. 15
Li J, Chen W, Li XY, Cheng F. Ganoderma yogurt and changes in colonies, physical and chemical properties during storage. China Dairy Ind 2011;5:18.  Back to cited text no. 16
Hallenberg N. Wood fungi (PolyporaceaeGanodermataceaeHymenochaetaceaeCyphellaceaeClavariaceaeAuriculariaceaeTremellaceaeDacrymycetaceae) in N Iran. II. Iran J Plant Pathol 1979;15:11-31.  Back to cited text no. 17
Mau JL, Tsai SY, Tseng YH, Huang SJ. Antioxidant properties of hot water extracts from Ganoderma tsugae Murrill. LWT Food Sci Technol 2005;38:589-97.  Back to cited text no. 18
Lawless HT, Heymann H. Sensory Evaluation of Food: Principles and Practices. Germany: Springer Science and Business Media; 2010.  Back to cited text no. 19
AOAC International. Official Methods of Analysis. 16th ed. Washington, DC, US: Association of Official Analytical Chemist; 1991.  Back to cited text no. 20
Buege JA, Aust SD. Microsomal lipid peroxidation. Methods Enzymol 1978;52:302-10.  Back to cited text no. 21
Iran IoSaIRo. Microbiology of Food and Animal Feeding Stuffs – Enumeration ofCoagulase – Positive staphylococci (Staphylococcus aureus and other species) – Test Method Part 1: Technique Using Baird-Parker Agar Medium. Iran, Tehran: ISIRI; 2010.  Back to cited text no. 22
Iran IoSaIRo. Microbiology of Food and Animal Feeding Stuffs – Horizontal Method for the Enumeration of Coliforms – Colony-Count Technique. Iran, Tehran: ISIRI; 2007.  Back to cited text no. 23
Iran IoSaIRo. Microbiology of Food and Animal Feeding Stuffs – Horizontal Method for the Enumeration of Yeasts and Moulds – Part 1: Colony Count Technique in Products with Water Activity Greater Than 0.95. Iran, Tehran: ISIRI; 2008.  Back to cited text no. 24
Iran IoSaIRo. Microbiology of the Food Chain – Horizontal Method for the Enumeration of Microorganisms – Part 1: Colony Count at 30°C by the Pour Plate Technique. Iran, Tehran: ISIRI; 2015.  Back to cited text no. 25
Heleno SA, Barros L, Martins A, Queiroz MJ, Santos-Buelga C, Ferreira IC. Fruiting body, spores and in vitro produced mycelium of Ganoderma lucidum from Northeast Portugal: A comparative study of the antioxidant potential of phenolic and polysaccharidic extracts. Food Res Int 2012;46:135-40.  Back to cited text no. 26
Smina TP, Mathew J, Janardhanan KK, Devasagayam TP. Antioxidant activity and toxicity profile of total triterpenes isolated from Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) P. Karst occurring in South India. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2011;32:438-46.  Back to cited text no. 27
Tao R, Hao L, Jia S, Zheng X, Yu J, Jiang Q. A comparative study on the antioxidant activity of two polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum. Adv Appl Biotechnol 2015;46:441-50.  Back to cited text no. 28
Moerck KE, Ball H. Lipid autoxidation in mechanically deboned chicken meat. J Food Sci 1974;39:876-9.  Back to cited text no. 29
Fernández J, Pérez-Álvarez JA, Fernández-López JA. Thiobarbituric acid test for monitoring lipid oxidation in meat. Food Chem 1997;59:345-53.  Back to cited text no. 30
Quereshi S, Pandey A, Sandhu S. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of different Ganoderma lucidum extracts. J Sci Res 2010;3:9-13.  Back to cited text no. 31
Yoon SY, Eo SK, Kim YS, Lee CK, Han SS. Antimicrobial activity of Ganoderma lucidum extract alone and in combination with some antibiotics. Arch Pharm Res 1994;17:438-42.  Back to cited text no. 32
Keypour S, Riahi H, Moradali MF, Rafati H. Investigation of the antibacterial activity of a chloroform extract of Ling Zhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (W. Curt.: Fr.) P. Karst. (Aphyllophoromycetideae), from Iran. Int J Med Mushrooms2008;10:345-349.  Back to cited text no. 33