Comparison the Effects of Oral Tizanidine and Tramadol on Intra- and Post-operative Shivering in Patients Underwent Spinal Anesthesia

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Anesthesiology, Shahid Beheshti Hospital, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

2 Department of General Anesthesiology, Imam Hossein General Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran

3 Department of Anesthesiology, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran

4 Department of Anesthesiology, Imam Khomeini Hospital, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran


Background: Heat loss and core-to-peripheral redistribution of body heat occur in patients undergoing neuraxial anesthesia resulted to decrease of core temperature and early reach of shivering threshold. Because shivering has deleterious metabolic and cardiovascular effects, it should ideally be prevented by pharmacologic or other means. Tizanidine is an alpha-2 agonist. We evaluated the usefulness of oral tizanidine (TI) and tramadol in preventing of shivering in patients undergoing spinal anesthesia for transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). Materials and Methods: Ninety patients, scheduled for TURP with spinal anesthesia, were prospectively enrolled. Patients were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups. 90 min before spinal anesthesia, 30 patients received 4 mg oral TI, 30 patients received 50 mg tramadol, and 30 patients received placebo as control group. Spinal anesthesia was induced at the L3–L4 or L4–L5 interspaces with 12.5 mg bupivacaine. An investigator blinded to the drugs recorded the frequency and degree of shivering. Results: The overall frequency and severity of shivering were significantly lower in patients treated with TI and tramadol compared to placebo (P = 0.04) (P = 0.001). There was not much difference in the nausea and vomiting of both the drugs (P = 026) (P = 011). There was no difference in hemodynamic parameters between three groups (P = 0.08) (P = 013). Conclusions: Oral TI and tramadol were comparable in respect to their effect in decreasing the incidence, intensity shivering when used prophylactically in patients who underwent TURP with spinal anesthesia.


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