Oral Diazepam in Febrile Seizures Following Acellular Pertussis Vaccination

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Pediatric Neurology and Child Growth and Development Center, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

2 Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran


Background: Febrile seizure is the most common type of seizures among children, which is a terrible and frightening experience for parents who are concerned about its recurrence. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of diazepam on preventing the recurrence of febrile seizure following acellular pertussis vaccination. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial, 121 children with a history of febrile seizure that required the pertussis vaccination were enrolled and divided into two groups; the first group was treated with oral diazepam for 48 h after vaccine injection and the control group received antipyretics only if fever occurred after the vaccination and used rectal diazepam for controlling seizure if a seizure occurred. The incidence of fever and seizure after the injection of the vaccine and incidence of febrile seizure were compared. Results: Nearly, 85.7% in the oral diazepam group and 87.9% in the rectal diazepam group had fever after receiving the pertussis vaccine, but the incidence of fever was not significantly different between the groups. Seven children (12.06%) in the rectal diazepam group had a seizure after pertussis vaccination, and none of the children in the oral diazepam group had a seizure after receiving the vaccine at 18 months of age. This difference was significant. Conclusion: Prophylaxis with diazepam administration in children with a history of febrile seizure can prevent recurrence of febrile seizure after pertussis vaccination.


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