The Effect of Three Different Insoles on Ankle Movement Variability during Walking in Athletes with Functional Ankle Instability


1 Musculoskeletal Research Centre, School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

2 Musculoskeletal Research Centre, School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran; School of Health Sciences, University of Salford, Salford, UK

3 School of Health Sciences, University of Salford, Salford, UK


Background: Increased ankle movement variability has been reported in people with functional ankle instability (FAI). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of textured insole, lateral wedge, and textured lateral wedge insole on ankle movement variability during walking in athletes with FAI. Materials and Methods: Twenty-one athletes diagnosed with FAI participated in this before-after study. Kinematic data were collected during four conditions (5 repeated trials per condition): (1) flat ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) insole, (2) textured flat EVA insole, (3) prefabricated lateral heel and sole wedge insole, and (4) textured lateral heel and sole wedge. The analysis of ankle movement variability was conducted during stance phase and 200 ms before initial contact to 200 ms after initial contact. The coefficient of multiple correlations (CMC) was calculated to investigate pattern variability and intraclass correlation (ICC) was used to investigate variability at the points of interest. Results: In terms of pattern variability, wearing textured lateral wedge increased CMC compared to other insoles. However, statistically significant differences were observed only in the frontal plane during stance phase (P < 0.05). In terms of variability at the points of interest, in the frontal plane and in all points of interest, wearing textured lateral wedge increased ICC compared to other insoles. The effects of other insoles on ankle movement variability were inconsistent. Conclusions: The results of this study showed that textured insole has the potential to decrease variability and the use of texture with lateral wedge may more improve variability in athletes with FAI.


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