Comparison of Nutritional Behaviors and Physical Activities Between Overweight/Obese and Normal-Weight Adults


Department of Community and Family Medicine, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran


Background: Overweight and obesity are major problems with increasing rates among adult populations. Nutritional behaviors and physical activity are the most important influencing factors. In this article, we conducted a survey on the nutritional behaviors and physical activities among normal-weight and overweight/obese adults. Materials and Methods: We conducted a survey on some of the nutritional behaviors and physical activities of 729 middle-aged adults. Data regarding desirable or undesirable use of fruits, fish, dairy products, oil, fast foods, and carbonated drinks and the intensity and duration of physical activities were collected from our data bank and analyzed using the SPSS software. Results: Our results indicated that overweight/obese people had an improper usage of fruits, oil, fast foods, and carbonated drinks and had lower physical activity. There was also a significant increase in intensity, duration per day, and weekly days of physical activity in healthy groups. Logistic regression analysis of nutritional behaviors, physical activities, and obesity also indicated that undesirable usage of oil, fast foods, and carbonated drinks and undesirable physical activity are associated with risks for overweight/obesity (odds ratio [OR] =10.70, OR = 7.45, OR = 7.48, and OR = 2.16, respectively) (P < 0.05). Conclusion: This article puts emphasis on the role of proper nutritional behaviors and higher physical activities in decreasing the risks of developing obesity, and we suggest that further interventions could be made based on the results of our study.


Nuttall FQ. Body mass index: Obesity, BMI, and health: A critical review. Nutr Today 2015;50:117-28.  Back to cited text no. 1
Mehta NK, Chang VW. Mortality attributable to obesity among middle-aged adults in the United States. Demography 2009;46:851-72.  Back to cited text no. 2
Villeneuve PJ, Jerrett M, Su JG, Weichenthal S, Sandler DP. Association of residential greenness with obesity and physical activity in a US cohort of women. Environ Res 2018;160:372-84.  Back to cited text no. 3
Gesler RJ. The Impact of Nutritional and Physical Fitness Teaching on the Health Behaviors of Inner-City Intermediate School-age Children. Spalding University; 2016.  Back to cited text no. 4
Archer E, Pavela G, Lavie CJ. The inadmissibility of what we eat in America and NHANES dietary data in nutrition and obesity research and the scientific formulation of national dietary guidelines. Mayo Clin Proc 2015;90:911-26.  Back to cited text no. 5
Rashidi A, Mohammadpour-Ahranjani B, Vafa MR, Karandish M. Prevalence of obesity in Iran. Obes Rev 2005;6:191-2.  Back to cited text no. 6
Murillo AL, Affuso O, Peterson CM, Li P, Wiener HW, Tekwe CD, Allison DB. Illustration of Measurement Error Models for Reducing Bias in Nutrition and Obesity Research Using 2-D Body Composition Data. Obesity. 2019 Mar; 27 (3):489-95.  Back to cited text no. 7
Lavie CJ, Milani RV, Ventura HO. Obesity and cardiovascular disease: Risk factor, paradox, and impact of weight loss. J Am Coll Cardiol 2009;53:1925-32.  Back to cited text no. 8
Brands B, Demmelmair H, Koletzko B, EarlyNutrition Project. How growth due to infant nutrition influences obesity and later disease risk. Acta Paediatr 2014;103:578-85.  Back to cited text no. 9
Vettori A, Pompucci G, Paolini B, Del Ciondolo I, Bressan S, Dundar M, et al. Genetic background, nutrition and obesity: a review. European review for medical and pharmacological sciences. 2019 Feb 1;23:1751-61..  Back to cited text no. 10
Mahtani KR, McManus J, Nunan D. Physical activity and obesity editorial: Is exercise pointless or was it a pointless exercise? Br J Sports Med 2015;49:969-70.  Back to cited text no. 11
Sharma SP, Chung HJ, Kim HJ, Hong ST. Paradoxical effects of fruit on obesity. Nutrients 2016;8. pii: E633.  Back to cited text no. 12
Burgoine T, Forouhi NG, Griffin SJ, Brage S, Wareham NJ, Monsivais P. Does neighborhood fast-food outlet exposure amplify inequalities in diet and obesity? A cross-sectional study. Am J Clin Nutr 2016;103:1540-7.  Back to cited text no. 13
Kelishadi R, Pour MH, Zadegan NS, Kahbazi M, Sadry G, Amani A, et al. Dietary fat intake and lipid profiles of Iranian adolescents: Isfahan healthy heart program – Heart health promotion from childhood. Prev Med 2004;39:760-6.  Back to cited text no. 14
Mokdad AH, Serdula MK, Dietz WH, Bowman BA, Marks JS, Koplan JP. The spread of the obesity epidemic in the United States, 1991-1998. JAMA 1999;282:1519-22.  Back to cited text no. 15
Lowry R, Wechsler H, Galuska DA, Fulton JE, Kann L. Television viewing and its associations with overweight, sedentary lifestyle, and insufficient consumption of fruits and vegetables among US high school students: Differences by race, ethnicity, and gender. J Sch Health 2002;72:413-21.  Back to cited text no. 16
Kivimäki M, Batty GD, Singh-Manoux A, Nabi H, Sabia S, Tabak AG, et al. Association between common mental disorder and obesity over the adult life course. Br J Psychiatry 2009;195:149-55.  Back to cited text no. 17
Kamiya Y, Doyle M, Henretta JC, Timonen V. Depressive symptoms among older adults: The impact of early and later life circumstances and marital status. Aging Ment Health 2013;17:349-57.  Back to cited text no. 18
Luppino FS, de Wit LM, Bouvy PF, Stijnen T, Cuijpers P, Penninx BW, et al. Overweight, obesity, and depression: A systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2010;67:220-9.  Back to cited text no. 19
Heerman WJ, Daley MF, Boone-Heinonen J, Rifas-Shiman SL, Bailey LC, Forrest CB, Young JG, Gillman MW, Horgan CE, Janicke DM, Jenter C. Maternal antibiotic use during pregnancy and childhood obesity at age 5 years. Int J Obes. 2019 Jan 22.  Back to cited text no. 20
Roux T, Heinen M, Daly L, Mehegan J, Murrin C, Kelleher C. Factors Associated With Sport Participation Amongst Third Class Primary School Pupils in Ireland: Results from the Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative. Vol. 76. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society; 2017.  Back to cited text no. 21
Lazareva O, Aravitska M, Andrieieva O, Galan Y, Dotsyuk L. Dynamics of physical activity status in patients with grade2-222 obesity in response to a physical rehabilitation program. J Phys Educ Sport 2017;17:1960-5.  Back to cited text no. 22
Coghlan B, Goyne J, Shield A, Cooke J, Douglas A. Exercise physiology and physiotherapy medication management and scope of practice extension. Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy. 2019 May; 15 (5):21-2.  Back to cited text no. 23
Malhotra A, Noakes T, Phinney S. It is time to bust the myth of physical inactivity and obesity: You cannot outrun a bad diet. Br J Sports Med 2015;49:967-8.  Back to cited text no. 24