A survey on inhibitory effect of whole-body extraction and secretions of Lucilia sericata's Larvae on Leishmania major In vitro

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

2 Department of Medical Entomology, School of Health, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar-Abbas, Iran

3 Department of Entomology, Zist Eltiam Sepanta Company, Azad University of Khorasgan, Technology Incubator, Center of Medicinal Plant and Traditional Medicine, Isfahan, Iran


Background: Leishmaniasis is a skin disease caused by Leishmania parasite. Despite being self-limiting, must be treated. Available drugs have side effects and drug resistance has also been seen. Materials and Methods: Maggot debridement therapy (MDT) is using sterile fly larvae (maggots) of blow flies (Lucilia sericata) for the treatment of different types of tissue wounds. Larvae have excreted and secreted substances that have been proved to have antimicrobial effects, in addition to the some other specifications. Results: In this study, the anti-leishmanial effects of extracts and secretions of sterile second- and third-instar larvae of L. sericata on the growth of Leishmania major promastigotes and amastigotes in the J774 macrophages have been evaluated in vitroConclusion: The results showed that extracts and secretions had almost the same leishmaniocidal effect on promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes without cytotoxic effect on macrophages.


Alvar J, Vélez ID, Bern C, Herrero M, Desjeux P, Cano J, et al. Leishmaniasis worldwide and global estimates of its incidence. PLoS One 2012;7:e35671.  Back to cited text no. 1
Ramezani P, Hejazi S, Narimani M, Soleimanifard S.In vitro antileishmanial activity and apoptosis induction of Pleurotus ostreatus alcoholic extract on Leishmania major. Res J Pharmacogn 2017;4:51-8.  Back to cited text no. 2
Santos DO, Coutinho CE, Madeira MF, Bottino CG, Vieira RT, Nascimento SB, et al. Leishmaniasis treatment – A challenge that remains: A review. Parasitol Res 2008;103:1-10.  Back to cited text no. 3
Sherman RA. Maggot versus conservative debridement therapy for the treatment of pressure ulcers. Wound Repair Regen 2002;10:208-14.  Back to cited text no. 4
Sherman RA, Tran JM, Sullivan R. Maggot therapy for venous stasis ulcers. Arch Dermatol 1996;132:254-6.  Back to cited text no. 5
Sherman RA. Maggot therapy for treating diabetic foot ulcers unresponsive to conventional therapy. Diabetes Care 2003;26:446-51.  Back to cited text no. 6
Jukema GN, Menon AG, Bernards AT, Steenvoorde P, Taheri Rastegar A, van Dissel JT. Amputation-sparing treatment by nature: “surgical” maggots revisited. Clin Infect Dis 2002;35:1566-71.  Back to cited text no. 7
Sherman RA, Pechter EA. Maggot therapy: A review of the therapeutic applications of fly larvae in human medicine, especially for treating osteomyelitis. Med Vet Entomol 1988;2:225-30.  Back to cited text no. 8
Namias N, Varela JE, Varas RP, Quintana O, Ward CG. Biodebridement: A case report of maggot therapy for limb salvage after fourth-degree burns. J Burn Care Rehabil 2000;21:254-7.  Back to cited text no. 9
Chambers L, Woodrow S, Brown AP, Harris PD, Phillips D, Hall M, et al. Degradation of extracellular matrix components by defined proteinases from the greenbottle larva Lucilia sericata used for the clinical debridement of non-healing wounds. Br J Dermatol 2003;148:14-23.  Back to cited text no. 10
Whitaker IS, Twine C, Whitaker MJ, Welck M, Brown CS, Shandall A. Larval therapy from antiquity to the present day: Mechanisms of action, clinical applications and future potential. Postgrad Med J 2007;83:409-13.  Back to cited text no. 11
Grassberger M, Sherman R, Gileva O, Kim C, Mumcuoglu KY. Biotherapy – History, Principles and Practice. Vol. 37. Dordrecht, Heidelberg, New York, London: Springer; 2013. p. 38-9.  Back to cited text no. 12
Sanei-Dehkordi A, Khamesipour A, Akbarzadeh K, Akhavan AA, Mir Amin Mohammadi A, Mohammadi Y, et al. Anti Leishmania activity of Lucilia sericata and Calliphora vicina maggots in laboratory models. Exp Parasitol 2016;170:59-65.  Back to cited text no. 13
Kawabata T, Mitsui H, Yokota K, Ishino K, Oguma K, Sano S. Induction of antibacterial activity in larvae of the blowfly Lucilia sericata by an infected environment. Med Vet Entomol 2010;24:375-81.  Back to cited text no. 14
Sadeghi S, Seyed N, Etemadzadeh MH, Abediankenari S, Rafati S, Taheri T.In vitro infectivity assessment by drug susceptibility comparison of recombinant Leishmania major expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein or EGFP-luciferase fused genes with wild-type parasite. Korean J Parasitol 2015;53:385-94.  Back to cited text no. 15
Osero B, Mosigisi A, Ogeto T, Mugambi R, Ingonga J, Karanja R, et al. Effects of glucocorticoids in Leishmania major infection. International J Fauna Biological Studies 2015; 2 (3): 16-22.  Back to cited text no. 16
Poorrajab F, Ardestani SK, Foroumadi A, Emami S, Kariminia A, Behrouzi-Fardmoghadam M, et al. Selective leishmanicidal effect of 1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives and possible mechanism of action against Leishmania species. Exp Parasitol 2009;121:323-30.  Back to cited text no. 17
Hadighi R, Mohebali M, Boucher P, Hajjaran H, Khamesipour A, Ouellette M. Unresponsiveness to glucantime treatment in Iranian cutaneous leishmaniasis due to drug-resistant Leishmania tropica parasites. PLoS Med 2006;3:e162.  Back to cited text no. 18
Adiele LC, Adiele RC, Enye JC. Wound healing effect of methanolic leaf extract of Napoleona vogelii (Family: Lecythidaceae) in rats. Asian Pac J Trop Med 2014;7:620-4.  Back to cited text no. 19
George BP, Parimelazhagan T, Kumar YT, Sajeesh T. Antitumor and wound healing properties of Rubus ellipticus smith. J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2015;8:134-41.  Back to cited text no. 20
Beasley WD, Hirst G. Making a meal of MRSA-the role of biosurgery in hospital-acquired infection. J Hosp Infect 2004;56:6-9.  Back to cited text no. 21
Pöppel AK, Koch A, Kogel KH, Vogel H, Kollewe C, Wiesner J, et al. Lucimycin, an antifungal peptide from the therapeutic maggot of the common green bottle fly Lucilia sericata. Biol Chem 2014;395:649-56.  Back to cited text no. 22
Ceřovský V, Slaninová J, Fučík V, Monincová L, Bednárová L, Maloň P, et al. Lucifensin, a novel insect defensin of medicinal maggots: Synthesis and structural study. Chembiochem 2011;12:1352-61.  Back to cited text no. 23
El Shazely B, Veverka V, Fucík V, Voburka Z, Zdárek J, Cerovský V. Lucifensin II, a defensin of medicinal maggots of the blowfly Lucilia cuprina (Diptera: Calliphoridae). J Med Entomol 2013;50:571-8.  Back to cited text no. 24
Daeschlein G, Mumcuoglu KY, Assadian O, Hoffmeister B, Kramer A.In vitro antibacterial activity of Lucilia sericata maggot secretions. Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2007;20:112-5.  Back to cited text no. 25
Huberman L, Gollop N, Mumcuoglu KY, Breuer E, Bhusare SR, Shai Y, et al. Antibacterial substances of low molecular weight isolated from the blowfly, Lucilia sericata. Med Vet Entomol 2007;21:127-31.  Back to cited text no. 26
Jaklic D, Lapanje A, Zupancic K, Smrke D, Gunde-Cimerman N. Selective antimicrobial activity of maggots against pathogenic bacteria. J Med Microbiol 2008;57:617-25.  Back to cited text no. 27
Polat E, Cakan H, Aslan M, Sirekbasan S, Kutlubay Z, Ipek T, et al. Detection of anti-leishmanial effect of the Lucilia sericata larval secretionsin vitro andin vivo on Leishmania tropica:First work. Exp Parasitol 2012;132:129-34.  Back to cited text no. 28
Arrivillaga J, Rodríguez J, Oviedo M. Preliminary evaluation of maggot (Diptera: Calliphoridae) therapy as a potential treatment for leishmaniasis ulcers. Biomedica 2008;28:305-10.  Back to cited text no. 29
Laverde-Paz MJ, Echeverry MC, Patarroyo MA, Bello FJ. Evaluating the anti-Leishmania activity of Lucilia sericata and Sarconesiopsis magellanica blowfly larval excretions/secretions in anin vitro model. Acta Trop 2018;177:44-50.  Back to cited text no. 30
Kabiri M, Dayer MS, Ghaffarifar F. Therapeutic effects of Lucilia sericata larvae on cutaneous leishmaniasis wounds caused by Leishmania major using BALB/c mice as animal model. J Kerman Univ Med Sci 2017;24:389-96.  Back to cited text no. 31