Background: Several conducted studies have reported a higher and more frequent Helicobacter pylori infection rate in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and its association between H. pylori infection and T2DM. Materials and Methods: A case and control study was conducted based on 529 T2DM patients and 529 control. H. pylori was assessed by Serum anti-H. pylori immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA. Furthermore, patients were investigated for fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), serum cholesterol, and other biochemistry parameters. Results: The findings showed a positive significantly higher antibody titer for H. pylori infection (IgA > 250) in diabetic patients (50.7%) compared to controls (38.2%) (P < 0.001). Similarly, H. pylori infection for IgG > 300 titer was higher in T2DM patients (73.5%) compared to controls 61.8%) (P < 0.001). Further, the mean values were statistically significant diabetes with H. pylori infection for IgG > 300 titer and IgA > 250 titer, regarding Vitamin D, HbA1C (P < 0.001), FBG, calcium, creatinine, total cholesterol, LHDL, triglyceride levels, uric acid, bilirubin, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The diabetic patients showed higher prevalence rate of symptoms than controls included: hypertension (14.3%), vomiting (15.5%), muscular symptoms (35.2%), bloating/distension (13.2%), abdominal pain (17%), nausea (9.6%), anemia (17%), kidneys (20.8%), chronic bronchitis (14.7%), gastrointestinal (23.8%), and diarrhea (20.4%). Conclusions: The current study revealed that H. pylori infections were significantly higher in diabetic patients compared to controls. Furthermore, T2DM patients infected with H. pylori positive reported a higher prevalence rate of symptoms than H. pylori negative.
Alberti KG, Eckel RH, Grundy SM, Zimmet PZ, Cleeman JI, Donato KA, et al. Harmonizing the metabolic syndrome: A joint interim statement of the international diabetes federation task force on epidemiology and prevention; national heart, lung, and blood institute; american heart association; world heart federation; international atherosclerosis society; and international association for the study of obesity. Circulation 2009;120:1640-5.