Clinical symptoms of COVID-19 and their association with disease outcome

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Community and Family Medicine, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

2 Vice Chancellery for Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

3 Vice Chancellery for Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences; Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran


Background: COVID-19 pandemic placed immense pressure on health systems. The current study aimed to evaluate the symptoms of COVID-19 in Isfahan province and their association with disease outcome. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, which was conducted on patients with a definite diagnosis of COVID-19, as a part of the investigations performed by the Deputy for Public Health of the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, the frequency of underlying diseases, and general, respiratory, gastrointestinal, neurological, renal, cardiac, dermal, hearing symptoms are assessed using a checklist. The participants were followed up 1 month after definitive diagnosis, and the outcome of the disease (recovery or death) was recorded. Results: Of 300 patients, 143 (47.4%) were male and 157 (52.6%) were female. The mean age of patients was 43 ± 17.84 years. Muscle pain and fatigue were the most common early symptoms (63% and 60.3%, respectively). Age, sex, level of education, and occupation of patients and general, respiratory, and gastrointestinal symptoms and underlying diseases of respiratory disease showed a statistically significant association with the disease outcome (P < 0.05). Conclusion: General, respiratory, and gastrointestinal symptoms were associated with an increased risk of death due to COVID-19. General, visual, and hearing symptoms, and diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and respiratory disease had a statistically significant association with the hospitalization of patients.


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