Background: Spatial disease mapping is a widespread tool in ecological analysis to obtain accurate estimates for incidence, relative risks (RRs), prevalence, or mortality rates regarding to increase the incidence of gastrointestinal (GI) cancer in Isfahan in recent years. This study aimed to inspect the RR of GI cancer in Isfahan counties using empirical and full Bayesian model. Materials and Methods: Data of this ecological study were GI cancer cases which registered in health-care system of Isfahan University of Sciences during 2005–2010. We applied shared component model to model the spatial variation incidence rates of the GI cancers. We compared three models such as Gamma–Poisson, lognormal, and Besag, York, and Mollie (BYM) Bayesian. WinBUGS and GIS 10.1 software were used. Results: According to the fitted model, BYM model had best fit to the data. However, in general, ranks of RRs in most counties are identical; counties with higher RR in one map have higher RR in other maps. Geographical maps for three cancers in women were smoother than men. Isfahan has high RR in women, whereas this point is slightly different in men. Daran, FreidoonShahr, and Isfahan are cities which have high RR in esophagus, stomach, and colon cancer, respectively. Conclusions: Lognormal and BYM maps had very similar results. Despite some differences in estimation values, in nearly all maps arias Isfahan had high RR in GI cancer. It is recommended to promote the use of screening programs and increase awareness of people in high RR areas to reduce the incidence of GI cancer.
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