Original Article: Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Bad Sobernheim Stress questionnaire in Iranian adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis using thoracolumbar orthoses


1 Musculoskeletal Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

2 Department of Health Professions, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, UK


Background: The assessment of the emotional consequences of having a spinal deformity and orthotic management in people with idiopathic scoliosis is essential. This study was aimed to translate and culturally adapt the Bad Sobernheim Stress questionnaire (BSSQ-Brace) for Iranian adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis using thoracolumbar orthoses. Materials and Methods: The BSSQ was translated into Persian according to a standard guideline. The Persian BSSQ-Brace was completed by 55 Iranian subjects with spinal deformities who agreed to participate in this research. The validity was determined by correlating the Persian BSSQ-Brace questionnaire (BrQ) and the revised Scoliosis Research Society-22 patient questionnaire (SRS-22r). To assess test-retest reliability, all participants completed the BSSQ-Brace twice, with a gap of 1-week. Intraclass Correlation Coefficient and Cronbach's alpha were measured to report reliability. Results: All population revealed items in the Persian BSSQ-Brace were easily understood, and there was no difficulty completing them. The psychometric properties of the Persian version of BSSQ-Brace demonstrated excellent test-retest reliability (interclass correlation coefficient = 0.94), excellent internal consistency (Chronbach's alpha = 0.94), and high construct validity with SRS-22r (r = 0.74). Conclusions: The Persian BSSQ-Brace is a reliable and valid instrument to assess the emotional domains in subjects wearing a spinal orthosis.


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